Characterization of gas bubbles injected into molten metals under laminar flow conditions

Research paper by R. J. Andreini, J. S. Foster, R. W. Callen

Indexed on: 01 Dec '77Published on: 01 Dec '77Published in: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B


Velocity and volume measurements of gas bubbles injected into liquid metals under laminar flow conditions (at the orifice) have been achieved. A novel experimental approach utilizing noises generated by bubbles was used to collect the necessary data. Argon gas was bubbled through tin, lead, and copper melts, and gas bubble formation frequencies (and hence bubble sizes) were determined. It was found that the bubble size generated for a particular orifice diameter was dependent upon the magnitudes of the orifice Froude and Weber numbers. Maximum formation frequencies increased slightly with decreasing orifice diameter, and the transition point from varying to constant frequency occurred at an orifice Weber number of approximately 0.44. Velocities of gas bubbles rising through the metals were greater than those previously reported for studies in which only one bubble was in the melt at any time. Effective drag coefficients of the rising bubbles were found to agree with data previously generated in aqueous systems.