Characterization of Circadian-associated pseudo-response regulators: I. Comparative studies on a series of transgenic lines misexpressing five distinctive PRR Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Research paper by Akinori A Matsushika, Masaya M Murakami, Shogo S Ito, Norihito N Nakamichi, Takafumi T Yamashino, Takeshi T Mizuno

Indexed on: 08 Feb '07Published on: 08 Feb '07Published in: Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry


Every member of a small family of Pseudo-Response Regulator (PRR) genes, including Timing of Cab Expression 1 (TOC1 [or PRR1]), are believed to play roles close to the circadian clock in the model higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study we established a transgenic line that misexpresses (or overexpresses) the PRR7 gene. As compared with wild-type plants, the resulting PRR7-misexpressing plants (designated PRR7-ox) showed characteristic phenotypes as to hallmarked circadian-associated biological events: (i) early flowering in a manner independent of photoperiodicity, (ii) hypersensitive response to red light during early photomorphogenesis, and (iii) altered free-running rhythms with long period of clock-associated genes. Finally, a series of all transgenic lines (PRR1-ox, PRR3-ox, PRR5-ox, PRR7-ox, and PRR9-ox) were characterized comparatively with regard to their clock-associated roles. The results suggested that the five homologous PRR factors play coordinate roles, distinctively from one another, and closely to the circadian clock in higher plants.