Indexed on: 01 Aug '14Published on: 01 Aug '14Published in: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Although most patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) adjust well, some have considerable psychological distress. Factors associated with psychological adjustment in ICD-recipients are still not well understood. Our purpose was to describe quality-of-life (QoL) and prevalence of self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression in a large national cohort of ICD-recipients, and to determine socio-demographic, clinical, and ICD-related factors associated with these variables.A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. All eligible adult ICD-recipients in the Swedish ICD- and Pacemaker Registry were invited to participate. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and QoL with the EuroQol-5D.A total of 3067 ICD-recipients (66±11years, 80% male) were included. The mean HADS score was 3.84±3.70 for anxiety symptoms and 2.99±3.01 for symptoms of depression. The mean EQ-5D index score was 0.82±0.21. The probability of symptoms of anxiety and depression was associated with younger age, living alone, and a previous history of myocardial infarction or heart failure. Additionally, female ICD-recipients had a higher probability of symptoms of anxiety. A higher level of ICD-related concerns was most prominently related to symptoms of anxiety, depressive symptoms and poorer QoL, while number of shocks, ICD-indication and time since implantation were not independently related.In this large cohort of ICD-recipients, the association of ICD-related concerns with symptoms of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and poor QoL suggests that ICD specific factors should be addressed in order to improve outcomes.