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Changes in the ADC of diffusion-weighted MRI with the oscillating gradient spin-echo (OGSE) sequence due to differences in substrate viscosities.

Research paper by Tomoko T Maekawa, Masaaki M Hori, Katsutoshi K Murata, Thorsten T Feiweier, Issei I Fukunaga, Christina C Andica, Akifumi A Hagiwara, Koji K Kamagata, Saori S Koshino, Osamu O Abe, Shigeki S Aoki

Indexed on: 28 Apr '18Published on: 28 Apr '18Published in: Japanese Journal of Radiology



Abstract

Compared with the conventional pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) sequence, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with the oscillating gradient spin-echo (OGSE) sequence can shorten the diffusion time by changing the frequency. The purpose was to investigate whether n-alkanes are suitable as isotropic phantoms for estimating the diffusion coefficient with the OGSE sequence. We investigated changes in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) due to differences in the viscosities of nine n-alkane phantoms with different numbers of carbon atoms from CH to CH using OGSE and PGSE sequences at 21 °C. Effective diffusion times of 4.3, 5.1, 6.5, 9.3, 20, 40, and 60 ms were used. The T relaxation times of each n-alkane phantom were measured using quantitative synthetic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Circular regions of interest were placed manually within the alkane phantoms on ADC and T maps. In each alkane phantom, changes in mean ADC values were almost constant with changes in diffusion times. Viscosities and ADC values showed inverse proportionality, as expected theoretically. The ADC values of alkanes do not depend on diffusion times. The n-alkanes can be useful phantoms for assessing the accuracy of clinical protocols of DWI with the OGSE sequence.