Changes in Soft Tissue Dimensions Following Three Different Techniques of Stage-Two Surgery: A Case Series Report.

Research paper by Jochen J Tunkel, Luca L de Stavola, Fouad F Khoury

Indexed on: 16 May '13Published on: 16 May '13Published in: The International journal of periodontics & restorative dentistry


The aim of this case series report is to compare the results of the increase in keratinized mucosa using three different techniques of stage-two surgery. Thirty-two patients with one to eight dental implants who received prosthetic rehabilitation of the maxilla were included. Patients were divided into three groups based on preoperative anatomical considerations. Stage-two surgery was performed using either the apically repositioned flap (ARF; n = 14), the roll flap (RF; n = 10), or an apically repositioned flap combined with a connective tissue graft (ARFCT; n = 8). The height of the keratinized mucosa and relative tissue thickness were measured preoperatively and postoperatively at 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The mean gains of keratinized mucosa and tissue thickness were calculated from these measurements. After 1 year, the mean gains in tissue thickness and keratinized tissue were 1.37 and 4.63 mm in the ARF group, 2.41 and 1.35 mm in the RF group, and 3.10 and 4.10 mm in the ARFCT group, respectively. There was no significant statistical difference between the 12-month and postoperative measurements (P > .05). In patients with deficient tissue thickness, a roll flap or an apically repositioned flap should be performed, while a lack of keratinized mucosa indicates the use of an apically repositioned flap with or without a connective tissue graft. When an increase in both keratinized mucosa and tissue thickness is necessary, an apically repositioned flap combined with a free connective tissue graft can be recommended. After a 12-month healing period, the obtained results showed excellent stability.