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Ce(0.6)Zr(0.3)Y(0.1)O(2) nanorod supported gold and palladium alloy nanoparticles: high-performance catalysts for toluene oxidation.

Research paper by Wei W Tan, Jiguang J Deng, Shaohua S Xie, Huanggen H Yang, Yang Y Jiang, Guangsheng G Guo, Hongxing H Dai

Indexed on: 22 Apr '15Published on: 22 Apr '15Published in: Nanoscale



Abstract

The Ce0.6Zr0.3Y0.1O2 (CZY) nanorods and their supported gold and palladium alloy (zAuxPdy/CZY; z = 0.80-0.93 wt%; x or y = 0, 1, 2) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using the cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-assisted hydrothermal and polyvinyl alcohol-protected reduction methods, respectively. Physicochemical properties of the samples were characterized by means of numerous analytical techniques, and their catalytic activities were evaluated for the oxidation of toluene. It is shown that the CZY in zAuxPdy/CZY was cubic in crystal structure, surface areas of CZY and zAuxPdy/CZY were in the range 68-77 m(2) g(-1), and the Au-Pd NPs with a size of 4.6-5.6 nm were highly dispersed on the surface of CZY nanorods. Among all the samples, 0.90Au1Pd2/CZY possessed the highest adsorbed oxygen concentration and the best low-temperature reducibility, and performed the best: T50% and T90% (temperatures required for achieving toluene conversions of 50 and 90%) were 190 and 218 °C at a space velocity of 20 000 mL (g h)(-1), respectively. The partial deactivation due to water vapor introduction was reversible. The active sites might be the surface oxygen vacancies on CZY, oxidized noble metal NPs, and/or interfaces between noble metal NPs and CZY. The apparent activation energies (37-43 kJ mol(-1)) obtained over 0.90-0.93AuxPdy/CZY were much lower than that (88 kJ mol(-1)) obtained over CZY for toluene oxidation. It is concluded that the excellent catalytic performance of 0.90Au1Pd2/CZY was associated with its high adsorbed oxygen species concentration, good low-temperature reducibility, and strong interaction between Au-Pd NPs and CZY nanorods as well as good dispersion of Au-Pd NPs.