Cardiovascular risks associated with smoking: a review for clinicians.

Research paper by Serena S Tonstad, J J Andrew Johnston

Indexed on: 29 Jul '06Published on: 29 Jul '06Published in: European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation : official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology


The cardiovascular consequences of cigarette smoking may not be as readily recognized as the adverse respiratory consequences. Smoking results in sudden death, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, worsened outcomes after angioplasty or bypass surgery, cerebrovascular disease, aortic aneurysm, peripheral vascular disease, increased risk of complications of hypertension and impotence. Physicians should encourage and help all their smoking patients to quit. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation is one of the most cost-effective healthcare interventions and should be offered to all dependent smokers. Both nicotine replacement and bupropion have been shown to be well tolerated in populations with cardiovascular disease.