Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Sweden 2007-2013: Experiences from seven years of systematic surveillance and mandatory reporting.

Research paper by Sonja S Löfmark, Karin K Sjöström, Barbro B Mäkitalo, Petra P Edquist, Karin K Tegmark Wisell, Christian G CG Giske

Indexed on: 26 May '15Published on: 26 May '15Published in: Drug Resistance Updates


Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are increasing worldwide, and are a major threat to healthcare systems. Recent European data support that many countries have interregional spread of CPE or an endemic situation. In Sweden mandatory laboratory reporting of CPE of both colonisation and infection has been practiced since 2007 and since 2012 also by treating physicians. Between 2007 and 2013, 94 cases of CPE were detected in Sweden, out of which 24 were considered to cause clinical infections (bloodstream infection (n=4), urinary tract infection (n=12), wound infection (n=4), respiratory tract infection (n=2) and catheter related (n=2). The majority were detected in the hospital setting through faecal screening or as probable colonisers in clinical cultures. Travel abroad was observed in the majority of the patients (81%), and among them 84% had been hospitalised. During the study period only two chains of transmissions in Swedish hospitals were reported, involving four patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the primarily isolated species (n=57) followed by Escherichia coli (n=29). blaNDM was the predominant carbapenemase gene (n=36), followed by blaOXA-48-group, blaKPC and blaVIM. In 26/94 cases (28%) isolates were categorised as possible XDR (extensively drug-resistant). CPE are increasing in Sweden, but are still at a comparably low level.