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Candidemia following solid organ transplantation in the era of antifungal prophylaxis: the Australian experience.

Research paper by S J SJ van Hal, D J E DJ Marriott, S C A SC Chen, Q Q Nguyen, T C TC Sorrell, D H DH Ellis, M A MA Slavin,

Indexed on: 18 Feb '09Published on: 18 Feb '09Published in: Transplant Infectious Disease



Abstract

Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients have high rates of invasive fungal infections, with Candida species the most commonly isolated fungi. The aim of this study was to identify differences between incidence rates, risk factors, clinical presentations, and outcomes of candidemia in SOT recipients and non-SOT patients. Data from the multicenter prospective Australian Candidaemia Study were examined. From August 2001 to July 2004, 24 episodes (2.2%; 24/1068) of candidemia were identified in SOT recipients. During this period, the numbers of transplanted organs included liver (n=455), kidney (n=1605), single lung (n=57), bilateral lung (n=183), heart and lung (n=18), heart (n=157), and pancreas (n=62). The overall annual estimated incidence of candidemia in SOT recipients was higher (3 per 1000 transplant admissions) than in non-SOT patients (incidence 0.21 per 1000 admissions; P<0.001). The incidence and timing of candidemia post transplant was influenced by the transplanted organ type, with the majority of episodes (n=14, 54%) occurring >6 months after renal transplantation. Risk factors for candidemia in the month preceding diagnosis were similar to non-SOT recipients except for corticosteroid therapy (P<0.001). Antifungal prophylaxis did not select for more resistant or non-albicans Candida species in the SOT group. The 30-day all-cause mortality was similar to non-SOT patients with candidemia and remains high at 21%. All deaths in SOT recipients occurred early (within 5 days of diagnosis), underlining a need for better diagnostic tests, targeted prevention, and early treatment strategies.