cAMP stimulates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) from latently infected cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage: synergism with TNF-alpha.

Research paper by M I MI Chowdhury, Y Y Koyanagi, S S Horiuchi, O O Hazeki, M M Ui, K K Kitano, D W DW Golde, K K Takada, N N Yamamoto

Indexed on: 01 May '93Published on: 01 May '93Published in: Virology


The present experiments were designed to study whether GTP binding protein activation and the resulting cAMP plays any role in HIV replication. The results showed that cholera toxin (CT) enhanced HIV replication dose dependently in myelo-monocytic cell lines latently infected with HIV-1, U1 and J22HL-60. Three- to 4-fold enhancement of virus production was observed in U1 cells and 4- to 11-fold enhancement in J22HL-60 cells 4 days after treatment with 100 ng/ml of CT. The increment of intracellular cAMP accumulation was parallel with HIV augmentation by CT in both cells. Even at the low concentration 0.1 ng/ml, TNF enhanced virus production to about an 80-fold higher level than the untreated U1 control cells as described previously (11). However, a synergistic effect (80- to 238-fold enhancement) was observed, when TNF-alpha and CT were added together to U1 cells. Similar synergism was seen in J22HL-60 cells. HIV antigen positive cells and gp120 expression were also increased to a similar degree. Phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX had no effect on HIV production alone, but potentiated HIV induction by CT and TNF. Adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin (FK), at 100 microM also significantly augmented HIV production (> 4-fold) and potentiated TNF induction in J22HL-60 and U1 cells. On the other hand, CT did not show any effect on HIV replication as well as TNF induction in HIV-1-infected T cell line. Northern blot experiment confirmed that this enhancement was mediated through the activation of HIV transcription. These data suggest that cAMP augments HIV replication and potentiates TNF induction in a particular monocyte-macrophage system.