Calhex 231 alleviates high glucose-induced myocardial fibrosis via inhibiting Itch-ubiquitin proteasome pathway in Vitro.

Research paper by Hui H Yuan, Jiyu J Xu, Xiaoyi X Xu, Tielei T Gao, Yuehong Y Wang, Yuqi Y Fan, Jing J Hu, Yiying Y Shao, Bingbing B Zhao, Hongzhu H Li, Jian J Sun, Changqing C Xu

Indexed on: 01 Feb '20Published on: 07 Jun '19Published in: Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin


Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major complication of diabetes, and features myocardial fibrosis as its main pathological feature. Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR)is a G protein-coupled receptor, which involves in myocardial fibrosis by regulation of calcium homeostasis. Calhex, the CaSR inhibitor, is not clear whether it regulates myocardial fibrosis in DCM. In the present study, type 1 diabetic(T1D) rats and primary neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts were used to observe the role of Calhex. In vivo experiments showed that in the T1D group,contractile dysfunction and the deposition of collagen I and III were obvious after 12 weeks. In vitro experiments,we found that high glucose(HG)could increase the expression of CaSR, α-SMA, TGF-β, collagen I /III, MMP2, MMP9, along with cardiac fibroblast migration and proliferation. We further demonstrated that CaSR activation increased intracellular Ca concentration and upregulated the expression of Itch (atrophin-1 interacting protein 4), which resulted in increasing the ubiquitination levels of Smad7 and upregulating the expression of p-Smad2, p-Smad3.However, treatment with Calhexclearly inhibited the above-mentioned changes. Collectively these results suggest that Calhex could inhibit Itch-ubiquitin proteasome and TGF-β/Smads pathways, and then depress the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts, along with the reduction deposition of collagen, alleviate glucose-induced myocardial fibrosis. Our findings indicate an important new mechanism for myocardial fibrosis, and suggest Calhex would be a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of DCM.