Indexed on: 25 Jul '20Published on: 07 Aug '19Published in: Seismic Instruments
The paper addresses marine broadband seismic data acquisition technologies, including conventional seismic oil exploration (frequencies no higher than a few tens of hertz) to map the subsurface down to several kilometers and engineering seismic surveying (frequencies from a few hundred to a few thousand hertz) to characterize sediments within the upper several hundred meters below the seabed. Various methods and approaches used in the two kinds of surveying have a lot in common, although they belong to different specializations. For the first time, this problem is discussed from a single point of view. We used published materials by foreign geophysical companies and experimental data obtained with acquisition techniques that we modified for two-tiered observations. It is shown that the modified techniques are efficient in the Arctic, especially for studying permafrost in upper subseabed sediments. This paper also discusses the application of towed recording systems and ocean floor multicomponent streamer cables and stations, including those using fiber optic technologies. Fiber optic receiver systems are most efficient for seismic time-lapse monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs during production (4D seismic). Analysis of the common problems with conventional and high-frequency marine seismic surveys allows the conclusion that it is time to revise the long-standing concept of marine seismic data acquisition. One possible way is to develop an integrated system for the acquisition, processing, and interpretation of seismic data in all frequency ranges. Our findings can aid in developing a methodology for geophysical surveying in hard-to-reach water areas.