Bose Einstein Condensation in solid 4He

Research paper by D. E. Galli, M. Rossi, L. Reatto

Indexed on: 17 Mar '05Published on: 17 Mar '05Published in: Physics - Statistical Mechanics


We have computed the one--body density matrix rho_1 in solid 4He at T=0 K using the Shadow Wave Function (SWF) variational technique. The accuracy of the SWF has been tested with an exact projector method. We find that off-diagonal long range order is present in rho_1 for a perfect hcp and bcc solid 4He for a range of densities above the melting one, at least up to 54 bars. This is the first microscopic indication that Bose Einstein Condensation (BEC) is present in perfect solid 4He. At melting the condensate fraction in the hcp solid is 5*10^{-6} and it decreases by increasing the density. The key process giving rise to BEC is the formation of vacancy--interstitial pairs. We also present values for Leggett's upper bound on the superfluid fraction deduced from the exact local density.