Indexed on: 29 May '20Published on: 25 May '20Published in: Biomolecules
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is upregulated in inflammatory bowel disease. Barbiturate nitrate hybrid compounds have been designed to inhibit MMP secretion and enzyme activity. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of barbiturate-nitrate hybrid compounds and their component parts using models of intestinal inflammation in vitro. Cytokine-stimulated Caco-2 cells were used in all in vitro experiments. The NO donors SNAP and DETA-NONOate were used to study the effect of NO on MMP-9 mRNA. Mechanistic elucidation was carried out using the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, ODQ, and the cGMP analogue, 8-Bromo-cGMP. Further experiments were carried out to elucidate the role of NF-κB. NO donors exerted an inhibitory effect on MMP-9 mRNA in cytokine-stimulated cells. While the non-nitrate barbiturates had a limited effect on MMP-9 expression, the hybrid compounds inhibited MMP-9 expression through its NO-mimetic properties. No effect could be observed on mRNA for MMP-1 or MMP-2. The sGC inhibitior, ODQ, abolished the nitrate-barbiturate inhibition of MMP-9 gene expression, an effect which was reversed by 8-Br-cGMP. This study shows that the barbiturate scaffold is suitable for hybrid design as an MMP-9 inhibitor in cytokine-stimulated Caco-2 cells. The inhibition of MMP-9 levels was largely mediated through a reduction in its mRNA by a sGC/cGMP pathway mediated mechanism.