Indexed on: 26 Feb '04Published on: 26 Feb '04Published in: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Trypsin and chymotrypsin-like enzymes were detected in the gut of Aedes aegypti in the four larval instar and pupal developmental stages. Although overall the amount of trypsin synthesized in the larval gut was 2-fold higher than chymotrypsin, both enzymes are important in food digestion. Feeding Aea-Trypsin Modulating Oostatic Factor (TMOF) to Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae inhibited trypsin biosynthesis in the larval gut, stunted larval growth and development, and caused mortality. Aea-TMOF induced mortality in Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Culex nigripalpus, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Aedes taeniorhynchus larvae, indicating that many mosquito species have a TMOF-like hormone. The differences in potency of TMOF on different mosquito species suggest that analogues in other species are similar but may differ in amino acid sequence or are transported differently through the gut. Feeding of 29 different Aea-TMOF analogues to mosquito larvae indicated that full biological activity of the hormone is achieved with the tetrapeptide YDPA. Using cytoimmunochemical analysis, intrinsic TMOF was localized to ganglia of the central nervous system in larvae and male and female Ae. aegypti adults. The subesophageal, thoracic, and abdominal ganglia of both larval and adult mosquitoes contained immunoreactive cells. Immunoreactive cells were absent in the corpus cardiacum of newly molted 4th instar larvae but were found in late 4th instar larvae. In both males and females, the intrinsic neurosecretory cells of the corpus cardiacum were filled with densely stained immunoreactive material. These results indicate that TMOF-immunoreactive material is synthesized in sugar-fed male and female adults and larvae by the central nervous system cells.