Indexed on: 21 Nov '00Published on: 21 Nov '00Published in: Journal of Biological Chemistry
The activation of human platelets by alpha-thrombin is mediated at least in part by cleavage of protease-activated G-protein-coupled receptors, PAR-1 and PAR-4. Platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha also has a high affinity binding site for alpha-thrombin, and this interaction contributes to platelet activation through a still unknown mechanism. In the present study the hypothesis that GpIbalpha may contribute to platelet activation by modulating the hydrolysis of PAR-1 on the platelet membrane was investigated. Gel-filtered platelets from normal individuals were stimulated by alpha-thrombin, and the kinetics of PAR-1 hydrolysis by enzyme was followed with flow cytometry using an anti-PAR-1 monoclonal antibody (SPAN 12) that recognizes only intact PAR-1 molecules. This strategy allowed measurement of the apparent k(cat)/K(m) value for thrombin hydrolysis of PAR-1 on intact platelets, which was equal to 1.5 +/- 0.1 x 10(7) m(-1) sec(-1). The hydrolysis rate of PAR-1 by thrombin was measured under conditions in which thrombin binding to GpIb was inhibited by different strategies, with the following results. 1) Elimination of GpIbalpha on platelet membranes by mocarhagin treatment reduced the k(cat)/K(m) value by about 6-fold. 2) A monoclonal anti-GpIb antibody reduced the apparent k(cat)/K(m) value by about 5-fold. 3) An oligonucleotide DNA aptamer, HD22, which binds to the thrombin heparin-binding site (HBS) and inhibits thrombin interaction with GpIbalpha, reduced the apparent k(cat)/K(m) value by about 5-fold. 4) Displacement of alpha-thrombin from the binding site on GpIb using PPACK-thrombin reduced the apparent k(cat)/K(m) value by about 5-fold, and 5) mutation at the HBS of thrombin (R98A) caused a 5-fold reduction of the apparent k(cat)/K(m) value of PAR-1 hydrolysis. Altogether these results show that thrombin interaction with GpIb enhances the specificity of thrombin cleavage of PAR-1 on intact platelets, suggesting that GpIb may function as a "cofactor" for PAR-1 activation by thrombin.