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This board is owned by Matt Holland, LKS ASE, Librarian. Contact Matt.Holland@nwas.nhs.uk.


Hosts recent articles from research based journals. Pinboard started in September 2016.


This board collates published research on the prehospital and paramedic Practice.


The board is aimed at those working in Ambulance Services and Prehospital Care. Anyone can look.


The board is updated regularly. Somewhere between daily and weekly depending on the volume of publication.

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This board is maintained and run by Matt Holland, Librarian LKS ASE Matt.Holland@nwas.nhs.uk.

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Check the LKS ASE website to find out more about us. Follow us on Twitter, our Twitter handle is @NWASLibrary.


Influence of Entrapment on Prehospital Management and the Hospital Course in Polytrauma Patients: A Retrospective Analysis in Air Rescue.

Abstract: Entrapment is a challenging and crucial factor in the prehospital setting. Few studies have addressed whether entrapment has an influence on on-scene treatment or on the following hospital course. Here we aimed to investigate the influence of entrapment on prehospital management and on the hospital course of polytrauma patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with an Injury Severity Score ≥16 and aged 16-65 years that were admitted between 2005 and 2013 to a Level I trauma center. Two groups were built: entrapped (E) and nonentrapped patients (nE). These groups were evaluated for multiple prehospital and clinical parameters, including on-scene time, prehospital interventions, and posttraumatic complications. There were 310 patients (n = 194 no entrapment [Group nE], n = 116 with entrapment [Group E]) enrolled. The on-scene time was significantly longer in Group E than Group nE. Moreover, this group received a significantly higher volume of colloidal solution. Regarding the Injury Severity Score and Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), there were no significant differences between the groups, except for the AIS, which was significantly increased in Group E. The overall hospital stay and the initial theater time were significantly longer in Group E than Group nE. No significant differences were present for the occurrence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, nor for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and estimated and final mortality. In polytraumatized patients, entrapment has a minor influence on the outcome and treatment in the prehospital and hospital setting when using physician-based air rescue. However, entrapped patients are prone to sustain more severe trauma to the extremities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Pub.: 24 Apr '18, Pinned: 29 Apr '18

Quantitative Approach Based on Wearable Inertial Sensors to Assess and Identify Motion and Errors in Techniques Used during Training of Transfers of Simulated c-Spine-Injured Patients.

Abstract: Patients with suspected spinal cord injuries undergo numerous transfers throughout treatment and care. Effective c-spine stabilization is crucial to minimize the impacts of the suspected injury. Healthcare professionals are trained to perform those transfers using simulation; however, the feedback on the manoeuvre is subjective. This paper proposes a quantitative approach to measure the efficacy of the c-spine stabilization and provide objective feedback during training. . 3D wearable motion sensors are positioned on a simulated patient to capture the motion of the head and trunk during a training scenario. Spatial and temporal indicators associated with the motion can then be derived from the signals. The approach was developed and tested on data obtained from 21 paramedics performing the log-roll, a transfer technique commonly performed during prehospital and hospital care. . In this scenario, 55% of the c-spine motion could be explained by the difficulty of rescuers to maintain head and trunk alignment during the rotation part of the log-roll and their difficulty to initiate specific phases of the motion synchronously. . The proposed quantitative approach has the potential to be used for personalized feedback during training sessions and could even be embedded into simulation mannequins to provide an innovative training solution.

Pub.: 26 Apr '18, Pinned: 29 Apr '18

Effects of Emergency Medical Services Times on Traffic Injury Severity: A Random-Effects Ordered Probit Approach.

Abstract: Emergency Medical Services (EMS) play a vital role in the post-crash effort to reduce fatalities by providing first aid treatment and transportation to medical facilities. This study aims to analyze the time required for crash reporting and EMS arrival in fatal traffic crashes and to explore the effects of EMS time on the traffic injury severity. The time required for EMS reporting, arrival, and transport to hospital were calculated by location type and roadway functional classification using 2016 FARS (Fatality Analysis Reporting System) data. Subsequently, an ordered probit model was developed to identify contributing factors for the injury severity considering the EMS time. The average time for the crash-reporting durations is 5.38 minutes, the reporting-scene arrival interval is 10.52 minutes, and the scene-hospital interval is 34.72 minutes. The average crash-reporting and reporting-scene arrival intervals were the longest on conventional roads in rural areas and the shortest on conventional roads in urban areas. The average scene-hospital interval was longest in conventional rural areas and the shortest on freeways/expressways in urban areas. The developed random-effects ordered probit model shows that prolonged reporting-scene arrival and scene-hospital intervals result in more severe injuries. The result also presents that crash type, violation, age, location, lighting condition, and alcohol/drug involvement have significant effects on the injury severity. The key findings from this study indicate that EMS times differ according to the urban/rural location and road functional classification, and that reporting-scene arrival and scene-hospital intervals have significant effects on the injury severity along with various factors. It is expected that the findings from this study can be used to develop effective and practical strategic plans to minimize EMS reporting, arrival time, and transport to hospital and, therefore, decrease the traffic injury severity.

Pub.: 26 Apr '18, Pinned: 29 Apr '18

Prehospital Intubation and Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury-Assessing Intervention Efficacy in a Modern Trauma Cohort.

Abstract: Prehospital intubation in traumatic brain injury (TBI) focuses on limiting the effects of secondary insults such as hypoxia, but no indisputable evidence has been presented that it is beneficial for outcome. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of patients who undergo prehospital intubation and, in turn, if these parameters affect outcome. Patients ≥15 years admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery, Stockholm, Sweden with TBI from 2008 through 2014 were included. Data were extracted from prehospital and hospital charts, including prospectively collected Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) after 12 months. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were employed to examine parameters independently correlated to prehospital intubation and outcome. A total of 458 patients were included ( = 178 unconscious, among them,  = 61 intubated). Multivariable analyses indicated that high energy trauma, prehospital hypotension, pupil unresponsiveness, mode of transportation, and distance to the hospital were independently correlated with intubation, and among them, only pupil responsiveness was independently associated with outcome. Prehospital intubation did not add independent information in a step-up model versus GOS ( = 0.154). Prehospital reports revealed that hypoxia was not the primary cause of prehospital intubation, and that the procedure did not improve oxygen saturation during transport, while an increasing distance from the hospital increased the intubation frequency. In this modern trauma cohort, prehospital intubation was not independently associated with outcome; however, hypoxia was not a common reason for prehospital intubation. Prospective trials to assess efficacy of prehospital airway intubation will be difficult due to logistical and ethical considerations.

Pub.: 26 Apr '18, Pinned: 29 Apr '18

Early Hospital Discharge After Helicopter Transport of Pediatric Trauma Patients: Analysis of Rates of Over and Undertriage.

Abstract: Helicopter air ambulance (HAA) of pediatric trauma patients is a life-saving intervention. Triage remains a challenge for both scene transport and interhospital transfer of injured children. We aimed to understand whether overtriage or undertriage was a feature of scene or interhospital transfer and how in or out of state transfers affected these rates. Children (<18 years) who underwent trauma activation at a level I trauma center between 2011 and 2013 were identified and reviewed. Patients transported by HAA were compared with those transported by ground ambulance (GA). Of 399 pediatric patients (median age, 10.4 years; range, 0.1-17 years; 264 male [66%]), 71 (18%) were transported by HAA. Seventy-two percent of HAA patients went to the intensive care unit or the operating room from the trauma bay or suffered in-hospital mortality (vs 42% GA, P < 0.001). More patients were overtriaged (HAA with injury severity score [ISS] of <15) from interhospital transfers than from the scene (25% vs 3%, P = 0.002). Undertriage (GA with ISS >15) was acceptable at 5% from the scene and 14% from interhospital transfers (P = 0.08). Overtriage of patients with ISS less than 15 to HAA was significantly lower from in-state hospitals (22%) than out-of-state hospitals (45%) (P = 0.02). Undertriage of patients with ISS greater than 15 to GA was also lower from in-state hospitals (20%) versus out-of-state hospitals (38%) (P = 0.03). Triage of pediatric trauma patients to HAA remains difficult. There remains potential for improvement, particularly as regards interhospital HAA overtriage, but well developed transfer protocols (such in-state protocols) may help.

Pub.: 27 Apr '18, Pinned: 29 Apr '18

Implementing a STEMI system of care in urban Bangalore: Rationale and Study Design for heart rescue India

Abstract: Publication date: June 2018 Source:Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, Volume 10 Author(s): Aruna Ramesh, Kenneth A. LaBresh, Rhea Begeman, Bentley Bobrow, Teri Campbell, Nayanjeet Chaudhury, Marcia Edison, Timothy B. Erickson, John D. Manning, Bellur S. Prabhakar, Pavitra Kotini-Shah, Naresh Shetty, Pamela A. Williams, Terry Vanden Hoek Background A system of care designed to measure and improve process measures such as symptom recognition, emergency response, and hospital care has the potential to reduce mortality and improve quality of life for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Objective To document the methodology and rationale for the implementation and impact measurement of the Heart Rescue India project on STEMI morbidity and mortality in Bangalore, India. Study Design A hub and spoke STEMI system of care comprised of two interventional, hub hospitals and five spoke hospitals will build and deploy a dedicated emergency response and transport system covering a 10 Km. radius area of Bangalore, India. High risk patients will receive a dedicated emergency response number to call for symptoms of heart attack. A dedicated operations center will use geo-tracking strategies to optimize response times including first responder motor scooter transport, equipped with ECG machines to transmit ECG's for immediate interpretation and optimal triage. At the same time, a dedicated ambulance will be deployed for transport of appropriate STEMI patients to a hub hospital while non-STEMI patients will be transported to spoke hospitals. To enhance patient recognition and initiation of therapy, school children will be trained in basic CPR and signs and symptom of chest pain. Hub hospitals will refine their emergency department and cardiac catheterization laboratory protocols using continuous quality improvement techniques to minimize treatment delays. Prior to hospital discharge, secondary prevention measures will be initiated to enhance long-term patient outcomes.

Pub.: 15 Apr '18, Pinned: 29 Apr '18

Helicopter Transportation Increases Intracranial Pressure: a Proof-of-Principle Study

Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2018 Source:Air Medical Journal Author(s): Iscander M. Maissan, Leonie A. Verbaan, Marco van den Berg, Robert Jan Houmes, Robert Jan Stolker, Dennis den Hartog Objective After severe (primary) brain injury, Dutch physician-based helicopter emergency medical services start therapy to lower the intracranial pressure (ICP) on scene to stop or delay secondary brain injury. In some cases, helicopter transportation to the nearest level 1 trauma center is indicated. During transportation, the head-down position may counteract the ICP-lowering strategies because of venous blood pooling in the head. To examine this theory, we measured the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) during helicopter transport in healthy volunteers. Methods The ONSD was measured by ultrasound in healthy volunteers during helicopter liftoff and acceleration in the supine position or with a raised headrest. Results In this proof-of-principle study, the ONSD increased during helicopter acceleration (−9° Trendelenburg, mean = 5.6 ± .3 mm) from baseline (0° supine position, mean = 5.0 ± .4 mm). After headrest elevation (20°-25°), the ONSD did not increase during helicopter acceleration (mean ONSD = 5.0 ± .5 mm). Conclusion ONSD and ICP seem to increase during helicopter transportation in −9° head-down (Trendelenburg) position. By raising the headrest of the gurney before liftoff, these effects can be prevented.

Pub.: 15 Apr '18, Pinned: 29 Apr '18

Frequent use of emergency departments by older people: a comparative cohort study of characteristics and outcomes.

Abstract: To characterise older people who frequently use emergency departments (EDs) and compare patient outcomes with older non-frequent ED attenders. Retrospective comparative cohort study. Logistic regression modelling of patient characteristics and health service usage, comparing older frequent ED attenders (≥4 ED attendances in 12 months) to non-frequent ED attenders. Three Australian public hospital EDs, with a total of 143 327 emergency attendances in the 12 months. People aged ≥65 years attending the ED in financial year 2013/2014. The primary outcome was frequent ED use; secondary outcomes were ED length of stay, discharge destination from ED, hospital length of stay, re-presentation within 48 h, hospital readmission within 30 days and in-hospital mortality. Five percent of older people were frequent attenders (n = 1046/21 073), accounting for 16.9% (n = 5469/32 282) of all attendances by older people. Frequent ED attenders were more likely to be male, aged 75-84 years, arrive by ambulance and have a diagnosis relating to chronic illness. Frequent attenders stayed 0.4 h longer in ED (P < 0.001), were more likely to be admitted to hospital (69.2% vs 67.2%; P = 0.004), and had a 1 day longer hospital stay (P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality for older frequent ED attenders was double that of non-frequent attenders (7.0% vs 3.2%, P < 0.001) over 12 months. Older frequent ED attenders had more chronic disease and care needs requiring hospital admission than non-frequent attenders. A new approach to care planning and coordination is recommended, to optimise the patient journey and improve outcomes.

Pub.: 17 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Effect of Pre-Hospital Red Blood Cell Transfusion on Mortality and Time of Death in Civilian Trauma Patients.

Abstract: Current management principles of haemorrhagic shock after trauma emphasize earlier transfusion therapy to prevent dilution of clotting factors and correct coagulopathy. London's air ambulance (LAA) was the first UK civilian pre-hospital service to routinely offer pre-hospital red blood cell (RBC) transfusion (phRTx). We investigated the effect of phRTx on mortality. Retrospective trauma database study comparing mortality before-implementation with after-implementation of phRTx in exsanguinating trauma patients. Univariate logistic regression was performed for the unadjusted association between phRTx and mortality was performed, and multiple logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. We identified 623 subjects with suspected major haemorrhage. We excluded 84 (13.5%) patients due to missing data on survival status. Overall 187 (62.3%) patients died in the before phRTx period and 143 (59.8%) died in the after phRTx group. There was no significant improvement in overall survival after the introduction of phRTx (p = 0.554). Examination of pre-hospital mortality demonstrated 126 deaths in the pre-phRTx group (42.2%) and 66 deaths in the RBC administered group (27.6%) There was a significant reduction in pre-hospital mortality in the group who received RBC (p < 0.001). phRTx was associated with increased survival to hospital, but not overall survival. The "delay death" effect of phRTx carries an impetus to further develop in-hospital strategies to improve survival in severely bleeding patients.

Pub.: 18 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Pre-hospital advanced airway management by anaesthetist and nurse anaesthetist critical care teams: a prospective observational study of 2028 pre-hospital tracheal intubations.

Abstract: Pre-hospital tracheal intubation success and complication rates vary considerably among provider categories. The purpose of this study was to estimate the success and complication rates of pre-hospital tracheal intubation performed by physician anaesthetist or nurse anaesthetist pre-hospital critical care teams. Data were prospectively collected from critical care teams staffed with a physician anaesthetist or a nurse anaesthetist according to the Utstein template for pre-hospital advanced airway management. The patients served by six ambulance helicopters and six rapid response vehicles in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden from May 2015 to November 2016 were included. The critical care teams attended to 32 007 patients; 2028 (6.3%) required pre-hospital tracheal intubation. The overall success rate of pre-hospital tracheal intubation was 98.7% with a median intubation time of 25 s and an on-scene time of 25 min. The majority (67.0%) of the patients' tracheas were intubated by providers who had performed >2500 tracheal intubations. The success rate of tracheal intubation on the first attempt was 84.5%, and 95.9% of intubations were completed after two attempts. Complications related to pre-hospital tracheal intubation were recorded in 10.9% of the patients. Intubations after rapid sequence induction had a higher success rate compared with intubations without rapid sequence induction (99.4% vs 98.1%; P=0.02). Physicians had a higher tracheal intubation success rate than nurses (99.0% vs 97.6%; P=0.03). When performed by experienced physician anaesthetists and nurse anaesthetists, pre-hospital tracheal intubation was completed rapidly with high success rates and a low incidence of complications. NCT 02450071. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Pub.: 18 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Preventing emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalisations of older adults with cognitive impairment compared with the general senior population: what do we know about avoidable incidents? Results from a scoping review.

Abstract: Older cognitively impaired adults present a higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality following a visit to the emergency department (ED). Better understanding of avoidable incidents is needed to prevent them and the associated ED presentations in community-dwelling adults. This study aimed to synthetise the actual knowledge concerning these incidents leading this population to ED presentation, as well as possible preventive measures to reduce them. A scoping review was performed according to the Arksey and O'Malley framework. Scientific and grey literature published between 1996 and 2017 were examined in databases (Medline, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, Ageline, Scopus, ProQuest Dissertations/theses, Evidence-based medecine (EBM) Reviews, Healthstar), online library catalogues, governmental websites and published statistics. Sources discussing avoidable incidents leading to ED presentations were included and then extended to those discussing hospitalisation and mortality due to a lack of sources. Data (type, frequency, severity and circumstances of incidents, preventive measures) was extracted using a thematic chart, then analysed with content analysis. 67 sources were included in this scoping review. Five types of avoidable incidents (falls, burns, transport accidents, harm due to self-negligence and due to wandering) emerged, and all but transport accidents were more frequent in cognitively impaired seniors. Differences regarding circumstances were only reported for burns, as scalding was the most prevalent mechanism of injury for this population compared with flames for the general senior population. Multifactorial interventions and implications of other professionals (eg, pharmacist, firefighters) were reported as potential interventions to reduce avoidable incidents. However, few preventive measures were specifically tested in this population. Primary research that screens for cognitive impairment and involves actors (eg, paramedics) to improve our understanding of avoidable incidents leading to ED visits is greatly needed. This knowledge is essential to develop preventive measures tailored to the needs of older cognitively impaired adults. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

Pub.: 19 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Development of sustainable community paramedicine programmes: a case study in Pennsylvania.

Abstract: Community paramedicine (CP) models have been applied across rural and urban communities in support of healthcare delivery systems for nearly two decades. However, there is still insufficient information regarding the development of sustainable CP programmes. This study explores the strategies used by active CP programmes and investigates their operational statuses, community demographics, financial models and challenges for programme development. A series of interviews was conducted with four CP programmes in Pennsylvania, USA, which are affiliated with a local government, a health system, an ambulance service and an emergency medical service, respectively. Each CP programme uses its own model with unique goals, as well as providing corresponding services/care based on the demands from their communities. Three CP programmes in the study were mainly aimed at reducing healthcare resource utilisation (ie, reduce readmissions or ED utilisation), but one of the programmes developed a sustainable model aiding newborn care in the community. Establishing a solid reimbursement mechanism and working closely with collaborators are two major strategies for developing sustainable CP programmes. Complete data collection and a programme evaluation process will also be important to demonstrate the value of its CP models to potential collaborators and policy-makers. However, the cost-effectiveness of a CP model is still not easy to identify due to the separate programmes being developed without uniform goals. The challenges and solutions from the four programmes under study can provide a road map for the development of CP programmes for other communities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

Pub.: 19 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Information, Vol. 9, Pages 29: Pedagogy before Technology: A Design-Based Research Approach to Enhancing Skills Development in Paramedic Science Using Mixed Reality

Abstract: In health sciences education, there is growing evidence that simulation improves learners’ safety, competence, and skills, especially when compared to traditional didactic methods or no simulation training. However, this approach to simulation becomes difficult when students are studying at a distance, leading to the need to develop simulations that suit this pedagogical problem and the logistics of this intervention method. This paper describes the use of a design-based research (DBR) methodology, combined with a new model for putting ‘pedagogy before technology’ when approaching these types of education problems, to develop a mixed reality education solution. This combined model is used to analyse a classroom learning problem in paramedic health sciences with respect to student evidence, assisting the educational designer to identify a solution, and subsequently develop a technology-based mixed reality simulation via a mobile phone application and three-dimensional (3D) printed tools to provide an analogue approximation for an on-campus simulation experience. The developed intervention was tested with students and refined through a repeat of the process, showing that a DBR process, supported by a model that puts ‘pedagogy before technology’, can produce over several iterations a much-improved simulation that results in a simulation that satisfies student pedagogical needs.

Pub.: 29 Jan '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Effects of modifiable prehospital factors on survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in rural versus urban areas

Abstract: The modifiable prehospital system factors, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), emergency medical services (EMS), response time, and EMS physician attendance, may affect short- and long-term survival for both rural and urban out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. We studied how such factors influenced OHCA survival in a mixed urban/rural region with a high survival rate after OHCA.We analyzed the association between modifiable prehospital factors and survival to different stages of care in 1138 medical OHCA patients from an Utstein template-based cardiac arrest registry, using Kaplan-Meier type survival curves, univariable and multivariable logistic regression and mortality hazard plots.We found a significantly higher probability for survival to hospital admission (OR: 1.84, 95% CI 1.43–2.36, p < 0.001), to hospital discharge (OR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.08–2.11, p = 0.017), and at 1 year (OR: 1.58, 95% CI 1.11–2.26, p = 0.012) in the urban group versus the rural group. In patients receiving bystander CPR before EMS arrival, the odds of survival to hospital discharge increased more than threefold (OR: 3.05, 95% CI 2.00–4.65, p < 0.001). However, bystander CPR was associated with increased patient survival to discharge only in urban areas (survival probability 0.26 with CPR vs. 0.08 without CPR, p < 0.001). EMS response time ≥ 10 min was associated with decreased survival (OR: 0.61, 95% CI 0.45–0.83, p = 0.002), however, only in urban areas (survival probability 0.15 ≥ 10 min vs. 0.25 < 10 min, p < 0.001). In patients with prehospital EMS physician attendance, no significant differences were found in survival to hospital discharge (OR: 1.37, 95% CI 0.87–2.16, p = 0.17). In rural areas, patients with EMS physician attendance had an overall better survival to hospital discharge (survival probability 0.17 with EMS physician vs. 0.05 without EMS physician, p = 0.019). Adjusted for modifiable factors, the survival differences remained.Overall, OHCA survival was higher in urban compared to rural areas, and the effect of bystander CPR, EMS response time and EMS physician attendance on survival differ between urban and rural areas. The effect of modifiable factors on survival was highest in the prehospital stage of care. In patients surviving to hospital admission, there was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality or in 1 year mortality between OHCA in rural versus urban areas.

Pub.: 18 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Prehospital Blood Product Administration Opportunities in Ground Transport ALS EMS - A Descriptive Study.

Abstract: IntroductionHemorrhage remains the major cause of preventable death after trauma. Recent data suggest that earlier blood product administration may improve outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether opportunities exist for blood product transfusion by ground Emergency Medical Services (EMS). This was a single EMS agency retrospective study of ground and helicopter responses from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 for adult trauma patients transported from the scene of injury who met predetermined hemodynamic (HD) parameters for potential transfusion (heart rate [HR]≥120 and/or systolic blood pressure [SBP]≤90). A total of 7,900 scene trauma ground transports occurred during the study period. Of 420 patients meeting HD criteria for transfusion, 53 (12.6%) had a significant mechanism of injury (MOI). Outcome data were available for 51 patients; 17 received blood products during their emergency department (ED) resuscitation. The percentage of patients receiving blood products based upon HD criteria ranged from 1.0% (HR) to 5.9% (SBP) to 38.1% (HR+SBP). In all, 74 Helicopter EMS (HEMS) transports met HD criteria for blood transfusion, of which, 28 patients received prehospital blood transfusion. Statistically significant total patient care time differences were noted for both the HR and the SBP cohorts, with HEMS having longer time intervals; no statistically significant difference in mean total patient care time was noted in the HR+SBP cohort. In this study population, HD parameters alone did not predict need for ED blood product administration. Despite longer transport times, only one-third of HEMS patients meeting HD criteria for blood administration received prehospital transfusion. While one-third of ground Advanced Life Support (ALS) transport patients manifesting HD compromise received blood products in the ED, this represented 0.2% of total trauma transports over the study period. Given complex logistical issues involved in prehospital blood product administration, opportunities for ground administration appear limited within the described system. MixFM, ZielinskiMD, MyersLA, BernsKS, LukeA, StubbsJR, ZietlowSP, JenkinsDH, SztajnkrycerMD. Prehospital blood product administration opportunities in ground transport ALS EMS - a descriptive study.

Pub.: 20 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Investigating the Extent Realistic Moulage Impacts on Immersion and Performance Among Undergraduate Paramedicine Students in a Simulation-based Trauma Scenario: A Pilot Study.

Abstract: Many healthcare education commentators suggest that moulage can be used in simulation to enhance scenario realism. However, few studies investigate to what extent using moulage in simulation impacts learners. We undertook a mixed-methods pilot study investigating how moulage influences student immersion and performance in simulation. Fifty undergraduate paramedicine students were randomized into two groups completing a trauma-based scenario with or without patient moulage. Task immersion was determined via a self-report questionnaire (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index), eye-tracking, and postsimulation interviews. Performance was measured via independent observation of video by two paramedic clinical educators and time-to-action-when students first applied pressure to the primary wound. Eye-tracking suggested that students attended to the thigh wound more often with the inclusion of moulage than without. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index data suggested that the inclusion of moulage heightened students' feeling of being rushed throughout the scenario. This elicited an expedited performance of tasks with moulage present compared with not. Students experienced greater immersion with the inclusion of moulage. However, including moulage enhanced scenario difficulty to the extent that overall clinical performance was negatively affected. However, no differences were found when more heavily weighting items felt to contribute most to the survivability of the patient. Including moulage engendered immersion and a greater sense of urgency and did not sacrifice performance of key life-saving interventions. As a result of undertaking this pilot project, we suggest that a large-scale randomized controlled trial is feasible and should be undertaken before implementing change to curricula.

Pub.: 20 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Burden of Emergency Medical Services Usage by Dialysis Patients.

Abstract: Patients receiving chronic dialysis often require emergent and inpatient care; however, only a minimal amount is known about their out-of-hospital/inter-hospital use of Emergency Medical Services (EMS). The purpose of this study was to describe the utilization of EMS in a cohort of dialysis patients. We analyzed a cohort of adult (≥18 years) chronic dialysis patients within the Nova Scotia Health Authority Central Zone Renal Program who initiated chronic dialysis between January 1, 2009 and June 30, 2013 (last follow up July 1, 2015). Dialysis patient data was linked to regional EMS data. Requests for EMS, including encounter type, day of the week, and patient characteristics were described. The cohort consisted of 468 patients of whom 79% (N = 361) had an EMS encounter. There were a total of 8,774 EMS encounters for the entire cohort. Patients who had an EMS encounter tended to be older (64 ± 14 years), compared to those without an encounter (55 ± 16 years, P < 0.001) and also had a higher burden of comorbidity. Transfers (including those between facilities) accounted for 89% of all encounters (N = 7,826), followed by emergency department (ED) transports (N = 749, 9%). Overall, 79% of all non-transfers underwent transport to the ED. For patients receiving thrice weekly in-center hemodialysis, the highest EMS utilization for ED transport occurred on the first hemodialysis day after the long dialysis break (22%, P < 0.01). The lowest proportion of ED transports occurred on the day after hemodialysis day 3. Utilization of EMS services by dialysis patients is considerable, particularly for transfers. This highlights a potential area to be targeted for reducing resource utilization. Calls requiring transport to the ED occurred most often on Mondays and Tuesdays, the day after the long-dialysis break, and may represent a time of heightened risk for in-center hemodialysis patients.

Pub.: 20 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Atmosphere, Vol. 9, Pages 114: Short-Term Changes in Weather and Space Weather Conditions and Emergency Ambulance Calls for Elevated Arterial Blood Pressure

Abstract: Circadian rhythm influences the physiology of the cardiovascular system, inducing diurnal variation of blood pressure. We investigated the association between daily emergency ambulance calls (EACs) for elevated arterial blood pressure during the time intervals of 8:00–13:59, 14:00–21:59, and 22:00–7:59 and weekly fluctuations of air temperature (T), barometric pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, geomagnetic activity (GMA), and high-speed solar wind (HSSW). We used the Poisson regression to explore the association between the risk of EACs and weather variables, adjusting for seasonality and exposure to CO, PM10, and ozone. An increase of 10 °C when T &gt; 1 °C on the day of the call was associated with a decrease in the risk of EACs during the time periods of 14:00–21:59 (RR (rate ratio) = 0.78; p &lt; 0.001) and 22:00–7:59 (RR = 0.88; p = 0.35). During the time period of 8:00–13:59, the risk of EACs was positively associated with T above 1 °C with a lag of 5–7 days (RR = 1.18; p = 0.03). An elevated risk was associated during 8:00–13:59 with active-stormy GMA (RR = 1.22; p = 0.003); during 14:00–21:59 with very low GMA (RR = 1.07; p = 0.008) and HSSW (RR = 1.17; p = 0.014); and during 22:00–7:59 with HSSW occurring after active-stormy days (RR = 1.32; p = 0.019). The associations of environmental variables with the exacerbation of essential hypertension may be analyzed depending on the time of the event.

Pub.: 20 Mar '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Paramedics as a New Resource for Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence.

Abstract: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a major impact on the health and well-being of women. The need for a coordinated response from health care professions encountering IPV patients is well established, and guidelines for individual health care professions are needed. Paramedics are believed to frequently encounter IPV patients, and this study aims to create a guideline to direct their response based on expert opinion. A clinical guideline for paramedics was created using current evidence and recommendations from health agencies. A panel of family violence researchers and service delivery experts such as physicians, family violence support agencies, and police commented on the guideline via a Policy Delphi Method to obtain consensus agreement. A total of 42 experts provided feedback over three rounds resulting in 100% consensus. Results include clinical indicators to recognize IPV patients in the prehospital environment, a description of how paramedics should discuss IPV with patients, recommended referral agencies and pathways, and appropriate documentation of case findings. This study has created the first comprehensive, consensus-based guideline for paramedics to recognize and refer IPV patients to care and support. The guideline could potentially be modified for use by ambulance services worldwide and can be used as the basis for building the capacity of paramedics to respond to IPV, which may lead to increased referrals to care and support.

Pub.: 21 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Prehospital emergency care nurses' strategies while caring for patients with limited Swedish - English proficiency.

Abstract: To explore the strategies of nurses working in the ambulance service while caring for patients with limited Swedish-English proficiency. Communication difficulties due to lack of mutual language is a challenge in health care systems around the world. Little is known about nurses' strategies while caring for patients with whom they do not share a mutual language in an unstructured, unplanned prehospital emergency environment, the ambulance service. A qualitative study design based on interviews was used and a purposeful sample and snowball technique was used to identify nurses with prehospital emergency experience of caring for patients with limited Swedish-English proficiency. Eleven nurses were interviewed, and the main strategy they used was adapting to the patients' need and the caring situation. The nurses used their own body, and tone of voice for creating a sense of trust and security. The nurses also used structured assessment in accordance with medical guidelines. Translation devices and relatives/bystanders were used as interpreters when possible. Another strategy was to transport the patient directly to the emergency department since they had not found a secure way of assessing and caring for the patients in the ambulance. The nurses used a palette of strategies while assessing and caring for patients when there was no mutual language between the caregiver and care seeker. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Pub.: 22 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18