Indexed on: 21 Feb '14Published on: 21 Feb '14Published in: Journal of Plant Growth Regulation
In this study, bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere and inside the roots and nodules of berseem clover plants grown in the field in Iran. Two hundred isolates were obtained from the rhizosphere (120 isolates), interior roots (57 isolates), and nodules (23 isolates) of clover plants grown in rotation with rice plants. Production of chitinase, pectinase, cellulase, siderophore, salicylic acid, hydrogen cyanide, indole acetic acid (IAA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, solubilization of phosphate, antifungal activity against various rice plant pathogen fungi, N2 fixation, and colonization assay on rice seedlings by these strains was evaluated and compared (endophytic isolates vs. rhizosphere bacteria). The results showed both the number and the ability of plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits were different between endophytic and rhizosphere isolates. A higher percentage of endophytic isolates were positive for production of IAA, ACC deaminase, and siderophore than rhizosphere isolates. Therefore, it is suggested that clover plant may shape its own associated microbial community and act as filters for endophyte communities, and rhizosphere isolates with different (PGP) traits. We also studied the PGP effect of the most promising endophytic and rhizosphere isolates on rice seedlings. A significant relationship among IAA and ACC deaminase production, the size of root colonization, and plant growth (root elongation) in comparison with siderophore production and phosphate solubilization for the isolates was observed. The best bacterial isolates (one endophytic isolate and one rhizosphere isolate), based on their ability to promote rice growth and colonize rice roots, were identified. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the endophytic isolate CEN7 and the rhizosphere isolate CEN8 were closely related to Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively. It seems that PGP trait production (such as IAA, ACC deaminase) may be required for endophytic and rhizosphere competence as compared to other PGP traits in rice seedlings under constant flooded conditions. The study also shows that the presence of diverse rhizobacteria with effective growth-promoting traits associated with clover plants may be used for sustainable crop management under field conditions.