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Attenuation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Liver Damage by Mulberry Leaf Diet in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

Research paper by Rejina R Afrin, Somasundaram S Arumugam, Mir Imam Ibne MI Wahed, Vigneshwaran V Pitchaimani, Vengadeshprabhu V Karuppagounder, Remya R Sreedhar, Meilei M Harima, Hiroshi H Suzuki, Shizuka S Miyashita, Takashi T Nakamura, Kenji K Suzuki, Masahiko M Nakamura, Kazuyuki K Ueno, Kenichi K Watanabe

Indexed on: 27 Feb '16Published on: 27 Feb '16Published in: The American journal of Chinese medicine



Abstract

Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Although antidiabetic use of mulberry leaves (MLs) has been popular due to their many anti-oxidative flavonoid compounds and free radical scavenging effects, ML's effects on ERS in experimental diabetic hepatocyte injury remain unknown. To investigate how ML affect ERS in diabetic liver, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to induce diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (STZ; 55 mg/kg) and fed with either normal chow or a diet containing 25% mulberry leaf powder diet (MLD) and examined for 56 days. We observed that MLD improved the rats' morphological and histopathological changes. Levels of ERS markers such as phosphorylated double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and the protein expression of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) were significantly higher in the diabetic liver compared to normal liver. MLD for 8 weeks significantly reduced all of these markers. MLD also significantly decreased hepatocyte apoptosis, hepatic macrophage recruitment, cellular infiltration, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 (TRAF2), interleukin 1[Formula: see text] (IL-1[Formula: see text]) and sterol regulatory element binding protein isoform 1c (SREBP 1c) levels in diabetic liver. These results may suggest that MLs can preserve hepatic function in experimental diabetes by modulating ERS mediated apoptosis and liver damage.