Indexed on: 02 Apr '20Published on: 02 Apr '20Published in: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Plants deeply trust in gravity to provide the constant landmark for downward root growth and upward shoot growth. The phytohormone auxin and its cell-to-cell transport machinery are central determinants ensuring gravitropic growth. Statolith sedimentation towards gravity is sensed in specialised cells. This positional cue is translated into the polar distribution of PIN auxin efflux carriers at the plasma membrane, leading to asymmetric auxin distribution and, consequently, differential growth and organ bending. While we have started to understand the general principles of how primary organs execute gravitropism, we currently lack basic understanding of how lateral plant organs can defy gravitropic responses. Here we briefly review the establishment of the oblique gravitropic set point angle in lateral roots and particularly discuss the emerging role of asymmetric cytokinin signalling as a central anti-gravitropic signal. Differential cytokinin signalling is co-opted in gravitropic lateral and hydrotropic primary roots to counterbalance gravitropic root growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.