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Association between the timing of maternal vaccination and newborns' anti-pertussis toxin antibody levels.

Research paper by Lourdes R A LRA Vaz-de-Lima, Helena Keico HK Sato, Eder Gatti EG Fernandes, Ana Paula Sayuri APS Sato, Lucia C LC Pawloski, Maria Lucia ML Tondella, Cyro A CA de Brito, Expedito J A EJA Luna, Telma Regina M P TRMP Carvalhanas, Euclides A EA de Castilho,

Indexed on: 22 Jan '20Published on: 04 Jun '19Published in: Vaccine



Abstract

Pertussis remains an important global public health concern, despite the presence of extensive immunization programs. Incidence and severity of pertussis are typically higher in neonates and young infants. As a strategy to protect these young infants, maternal vaccination with Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis) has been recommended in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tdap vaccination during pregnancy on the anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG response in mothers and their infants at birth. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected from vaccinated (n = 243) and unvaccinated (n = 75) pregnant women, at the time of delivery, from July 2015 to August 2016 in São Paulo, Brazil. Anti-PT IgG antibodies were quantified by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and geometric mean concentrations (GMC) were calculated. Relationship between timing of vaccination and antibody concentrations were evaluated. Maternal and cord blood GMCs among the vaccinated group were 5.4 and 5.6 fold higher [66.5 International Units (IU)/mL and 89.8 IU/mL] compared to the unvaccinated group (12.4 IU/mL and 16.1 IU/mL), respectively (p < 0.001). Higher anti-PT IgG GMCs were observed when vaccination occurred ≥60 days before delivery compared to <60 days, suggesting that vaccination early in the third trimester may be more effective than later in pregnancy. Tdap maternal vaccination results in significantly higher anti-PT IgG in newborn infants and supports the current recommendation of the Brazilian Immunization Program. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.