Indexed on: 21 Mar '17Published on: 21 Mar '17Published in: European Journal of Internal Medicine
An increasing prevalence of candidemia has been reported in Internal Medicine wards (IMWs). The aim of our study was to identify risk factors for candidemia among non-neutropenic patients hospitalized in IMWs.A multicenter case-control study was performed in three hospitals in Italy. Patients developing candidemia (cases) were compared to patients without candidemia (controls) matched by age, time of admission and duration of hospitalization. A logistic regression analysis identified risk factors for candidemia, and a new risk score was developed. Validation was performed on an external cohort of patients.Overall, 951 patients (317 cases of candidemia and 634 controls) were included in the derivation cohort, while 270 patients (90 patients with candidemia and 180 controls) constituted the validation cohort. Severe sepsis or septic shock, recent Clostridium difficile infection, diabetes mellitus, total parenteral nutrition, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, concomitant intravenous glycopeptide therapy, presence of peripherally inserted central catheter, previous antibiotic therapy and immunosuppressive therapy were factors independently associated with candidemia. The new risk score showed good area under the curve (AUC) values in both derivation (AUC 0.973 95% CI 0.809-0.997, p<0.001) and validation cohort (0.867 95% CI 0.710-0.931, p<0.001). A threshold of 3 leads to a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 83%.Non-neutropenic patients admitted in IMWs have peculiar risk factors for candidemia. A new risk score with a good performance could facilitate the identification of candidates to early antifungal therapy.