Indexed on: 10 Apr '16Published on: 10 Apr '16Published in: World Journal of Pediatrics
Extra genetic material in patients with Down syndrome (DS) may affect the function of any organ system. We evaluated cardiac functions using conventional tissue Doppler and two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with DS in the absence of congenital and acquired heart disease in patients.A total of 115 patients with DS between 6 and 13 years of age with clinically and anatomically normal heart and 55 healthy children were included in this cross-sectional study. DS was diagnosed by a karyotype test. Patients with mosaic type were not included in this study. Systolic and diastolic functions were evaluated by echocardiography.Pulsed waved Doppler transmitral early/late inflow velocity (E/A), tissue Doppler mitral annular early/late diastolic peak velocity (Ea/Aa), transtricuspid E/A and tricuspid valve annulus Ea/Aa, pulmonary venous Doppler systolic/diastolic (S/D) wave ratio were lower in patients with Down syndrome than in the control group (P=0.04, P=0.001, Plt;0.05, Plt;0.001, Plt;0.001, respectively). Mitral and tricuspid annular Ea were lower in patients with DS (Plt;0.001). The right and left ventricular myocardial performance indexes were higher in patients with DS than in the controls (Plt;0.01). They had significantly higher left ventricular mass, ejection fraction, the mitral annular plane systolic excursion values. However, the Down syndrome group compared with the controls had a lower strain values examined by two-dimensional longitudinal speckle-tracking strain echocardiography.These findings suggest conventional tissue Doppler and two-dimensional longitudinal speckletracking strain echocardiography were useful methods of investigating ventricular function and identifying a higher incidence of biventricular dysfunction in patients with Down syndrome compared with the healthy controls.