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Assessment of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats as a Periodontal Disease Model Using a Selective Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 Inhibitor.

Research paper by Yutaka Y Nakahara, Kiyokazu K Ozaki, Tomoya T Sano, Yasushi Y Kodama, Tetsuro T Matsuura

Indexed on: 04 May '16Published on: 30 Oct '14Published in: Journal of toxicologic pathology



Abstract

Several recent studies have reported that alloxan-treated rats with long-term hyperglycemia can develop naturally occurring periodontal disease (PD). Our previous studies detected dental caries in the same model. Therefore, these two lesions of different etiologies are expected to occur concurrently. In this study, we evaluated the use of diabetic rats as a PD model by employing a selective COX-2 inhibitor reported to be effective against PD. Six-week-old female F344 rats were divided into 3 groups: intact rats (control), alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed a standard diet (AL) and alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed a diet containing 0.01% etodolac (AL+Et). The animals were euthanized at 26 weeks of age, and their oral tissues were examined histopathologically. Gingivitis, marginal periodontitis and alveolar bone resorption were markedly enhanced along with dental caries in the AL group compared with the control group. However, the COX-2 inhibitor had no effect on periodontal inflammation in the AL+Et group. In addition, in the AL group, periodontitis was notably nonexistent around the normal molars, and gingivitis was scarcely worse than that in the control group. In the diabetic rats, the progression of periodontal inflammation was closely correlated with the severity of adjacent dental caries, and marginal periodontitis was frequently continuous with apical periodontitis. In conclusion, an alloxan-induced diabetic rat is not a model of PD but of dental caries. It is probable that in this model, hyperglycemia may enable crown caries to progress to apical periodontitis, while the associated inflammation may rostrally expand to surrounding periodontal tissue.