As2 O3 combined with leflunomide prolongs heart xenograft survival via suppressing the response of Th1, Th2, and B cells in a rat model.

Research paper by Zhi-Xing ZX Jiao, Yun Y Leng, Jun-Jie JJ Xia, Hai-Qiao HQ Wu, Ning N Jin, Jia-Zhao JZ Fu, Lian-Na LN Cheng, Jin-Hua JH Wang, Shao-Bin SB Ni, Zhong-Quan ZQ Qi

Indexed on: 18 May '16Published on: 18 May '16Published in: Xenotransplantation


Xenotransplantation remits the severe shortage of human organs and tissues for transplantation, which is a problem that severely limits the application of transplantation to the treatment of human disease. However, severe immune rejection significantly limits the efficacy of xenotransplantation. In this study, we systematically investigated the immunosuppressive effect and mechanism of action of As2 O3 and leflunomide using a hamster-to-rat heart xenotransplantation model. We initially examined heart xenograft survival following As2 O3 and leflunomide treatment alone or combined treatment. We found that treatment with As2 O3 combined with leflunomide can significantly prolong the survival of heart xenograft by inhibiting Th1 and Th2 differentiation and reducing the production of IgG and IgM. Interestingly, As2 O3 and leflunomide showed low toxicity to the organs of the recipient. Taken together, these observations indicate that treatment with As2 O3 combined with leflunomide may be a promising immunosuppressive schedule for xenotransplantation.