Indexed on: 27 Aug '13Published on: 27 Aug '13Published in: Seminars in Immunopathology
Unlike adaptive immune cells that require antigen recognition and functional maturation during infection, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) usually respond to pathogens promptly and serve as the first line of defense in infectious diseases. RAR-related orphan receptor (RORγt)⁺ group 3 ILCs are one of the innate cell populations that have recently been intensively studied. During the fetal stage of development, RORγt⁺ group 3 ILCs (e.g., lymphoid tissue inducer cells) are required for lymphoid organogenesis. In adult mice, RORγt⁺ group 3 ILCs are abundantly present in the gut to exert immune defensive functions. Under certain circumstances, however, RORγt⁺ group 3 ILCs can be pathogenic and contribute to intestinal inflammation. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), a ligand-dependent transcriptional factor, is widely expressed by various immune and non-immune cells. In the gut, the ligand for Ahr can be derived/generated from diet, microflora, and/or host cells. Ahr has been shown to regulate different cell populations in the immune system including RORγt⁺ group 3 ILCs, T helper (Th)17/22 cells, γδT cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs), Tr1 cells, and antigen presenting cells. In this review, we will focus on the development and function of RORγt⁺ group 3 ILCs, and discuss the role of Ahr in intestinal immunity and inflammation in mice and in humans. A better understanding of the function of Ahr in the gut is important for developing new therapeutic means to target Ahr in future treatment of infectious and autoimmune diseases.