Indexed on: 23 Jul '04Published on: 23 Jul '04Published in: The Journal of chemical physics
The most widely used algorithm for Monte Carlo sampling of electronic transitions in trajectory surface hopping (TSH) calculations is the so-called anteater algorithm, which is inefficient for sampling low-probability nonadiabatic events. We present a new sampling scheme (called the army ants algorithm) for carrying out TSH calculations that is applicable to systems with any strength of coupling. The army ants algorithm is a form of rare event sampling whose efficiency is controlled by an input parameter. By choosing a suitable value of the input parameter the army ants algorithm can be reduced to the anteater algorithm (which is efficient for strongly coupled cases), and by optimizing the parameter the army ants algorithm may be efficiently applied to systems with low-probability events. To demonstrate the efficiency of the army ants algorithm, we performed atom-diatom scattering calculations on a model system involving weakly coupled electronic states. Fully converged quantum mechanical calculations were performed, and the probabilities for nonadiabatic reaction and nonreactive deexcitation (quenching) were found to be on the order of 10(-8). For such low-probability events the anteater sampling scheme requires a large number of trajectories ( approximately 10(10)) to obtain good statistics and converged semiclassical results. In contrast by using the new army ants algorithm converged results were obtained by running 10(5) trajectories. Furthermore, the results were found to be in excellent agreement with the quantum mechanical results. Sampling errors were estimated using the bootstrap method, which is validated for use with the army ants algorithm.