Indexed on: 03 Jan '12Published on: 03 Jan '12Published in: Biochimica et biophysica acta
The discovery of apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V) in 2001 has raised a number of intriguing questions about its role in lipid transport and triglyceride (TG) homeostasis. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have consistently identified APOA5 as a contributor to plasma TG levels. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the APOA5 gene locus have been shown to correlate with elevated plasma TG. Furthermore, transgenic and knockout mouse models support the view that apoA-V plays a critical role in maintenance of plasma TG levels. The present review describes recent concepts pertaining to apoA-V SNP analysis and their association with elevated plasma TG. The interaction of apoA-V with glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) is discussed relative to its postulated role in TG-rich lipoprotein catabolism. The potential role of intracellular apoA-V in regulation of TG homeostasis, as a function of its ability to associate with cytosolic lipid droplets, is reviewed. While some answers are emerging, numerous mysteries remain with regard to this low abundance, yet potent, modulator of TG homeostasis. Given the strong correlation between elevated plasma TG and heart disease, there is great scientific and public interest in deciphering the numerous biological riddles presented by apoA-V. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease.