Indexed on: 27 May '17Published on: 27 May '17Published in: Kidney International
Whether APOL1 polymorphisms contribute to the excess risk of hypertension among blacks is unknown. To assess this we evaluated whether self-reported race and, in blacks, APOL1 risk variants (high-risk [2 risk alleles] versus low-risk [0-1 risk allele]) were associated with longitudinal blood pressure. Blood pressure trajectories were determined using linear mixed-effects (slope) and latent class models (5 distinct groups) during 25 years of follow-up in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Associations of race and APOL1 genotypes with blood pressure change, separately, using linear mixed-effects and multinomial logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and traditional hypertension risk factors, anti-hypertensive medication use, and kidney function were evaluated. Among 1700 whites and 1330 blacks (13% APOL1 high-risk, mean age 25 years; 46% male) mean mid-, ([systolic + diastolic blood pressure]/2), systolic, and diastolic blood pressures were 89, 110, and 69 mm Hg, respectively. One percent of participants used anti-hypertensive medications at baseline. Compared to whites, blacks, regardless of APOL1 genotype, had significantly greater increases in mid-blood pressure and were more likely to experience significantly increasing mid-blood pressure trajectories with adjusted relative risk ratios of 5.21 and 7.27 for moderate-increasing and elevated-increasing versus low-stable blood pressure, respectively. Among blacks, longitudinal mid-blood pressure changes and mid-blood pressure trajectory classification were similar by APOL1 risk status. Modeling systolic and diastolic blood pressure as outcomes yielded similar findings. From young adulthood to mid-life, blacks have greater blood pressure increases versus whites that are not fully explained by traditional risk factors. Thus APOL1 variants are not associated with longitudinal blood pressure in blacks.