Indexed on: 02 Jun '20Published on: 02 Jun '20Published in: Journal of Affective Disorders
Background Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) have recently attracted attention as a novel, individualized treatment method for major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, the antidepressant effect of neurofeedback training for left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity was examined. Methods Six patients with MDD completed 5 days of neurofeedback training sessions. In each session, the patients observed a BOLD signal within their left DLPFC as a line graph, and attempted to up-regulate the signal using the graphical cue. Primary outcome measures were clinical scales of severity of depression and rumination. Results After neurofeedback training, the clinical measures were improved significantly. In addition, patient proficiency for neurofeedback training was related significantly to the improvement of the rumination symptom. Limitations Study limitations include the lack of a control group or condition, the lack of transfer run, and the small number of participants. Conclusions This small sample study suggests the possible efficacy of DLPFC activity regulation training for the treatment of MDD. As a next step, a sham-controlled randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm the antidepressive effect of left DLPFC neurofeedback. Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.