Anthocyanins in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata]

Research paper by Tae Joung Ha, Myoung-Hee Lee, Yu Na Jeong, Jin Hwan Lee, Sang-Ik Han, Chang-Hwan Park, Suk-Bok Pae, Chung-Dong Hwang, In-Youl Baek, Keum-Yong Park

Indexed on: 30 Jun '10Published on: 30 Jun '10Published in: Food science and biotechnology


The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the anthocyanins in the black seed coated cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata] using reverse phase C-18 open column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and electro spray ionization/mass spectrometry (DAD-ESI/MS) analysis, respectively. Anthocyanins were extracted from the coat of black cowpea with 1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in methanol, isolated by RP-C-18 column chromatography, and their structures elucidated by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The isolated anthocyanins were characterized as delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (2) and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (4). Furthermore, 5 minor anthocyanins were detected and identified as delphinidin-3-O-galactoside (1), cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (3), petunidin-3-O-glucoside (5), peonidin-3-O-glucoside (7), and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (8) based on the fragmentation patterns of HPLC-DADESI/MS analysis.