Indexed on: 28 Oct '17Published on: 01 Jun '17Published in: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine
Haemonchus contortus is one of the prevalent and pathogenic ruminant parasites that has grown resistance to common anthelmintic treatment. This study evaluated the anthelmintic potential of Moringa oleifera seed ethanolic and aqueous extracts against H. contortus eggs and infective stage larvae (L3s). The efficacy of five extract concentrations (0.95, 1.95, 3.9, 7.8, and 15.6 mg/mL) were tested through egg hatch assay and larval motility test. Phytochemical tests were conducted to detect the different plant secondary metabolites in the extracts. In the ovicidal assay, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed 95.89% and 81.72% egg hatch inhibition at 15.6 mg/mL, respectively. The ovicidal activity of 15.6 mg/mL ethanolic extract was comparable with that of albendazole (p > 0.05). The LC50 against the eggs was recorded at 2.91 and 3.83 mg/mL for ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. In the larvicidal assay, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts exhibited 56.94% and 92.50% efficacy at 7.8 mg/mL, respectively. The larvicidal activity of 7.8 mg/mL aqueous extract was similar statistically with that of ivermectin (p > 0.05). The LC50 against L3s was recorded at 6.96 and 4.12 mg/mL for ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The secondary metabolites detected were tannins in ethanolic extract and saponins in aqueous extract. Both extracts inhibited larvae formation inside the eggs and rendered the L3s immobile. Therefore, M. oleifera seed extracts contained plant bioactive compounds with anthelmintic property against the eggs and L3s of H. contortus.