Imported: 17 Feb '17 | Published: 23 Sep '14

USPTO - Utility Patents

A method for evaluating capacitor weighting of an analog-to-digital (ADC) is provided. An equivalent weighting value of each composed capacitor in each sub-capacitor-array may be obtained by adding the switch device to the ADC which enables each sub-capacitor-array in a digital-to-analog (DAC) to be measured by each other. The ADC can calculate and then obtain a correct digital output by using the calibrated equivalent weighting and successive approximation result of each input signal.

This application claims the priority benefit of Taiwan application serial no. 101151074, filed on Dec. 28, 2012. The entirety of the above-mentioned patent application is hereby incorporated by reference herein and made a part of this specification.

The disclosure relates to a split capacitor array analog-to-digital converter (SCA ADC) and a method of evaluating capacitor weighting of a digital-to-analog converter thereof.

In recent years, integrated circuit design has been trending towards increasingly difficult demands on lowering power consumption and cost along with enhancing performance. In the design of front-end analog circuits, an efficient analog-to-digital converter (ADC) can drastically enhance the overall system performance. The ADC is responsible for converting the received analog signals into digital signals, and providing the digital signals for the operation of the back-end digital signal processing unit. Therefore, characteristics of the ADC such as its dynamic range, resolution, accuracy, linearity, sampling speed, power consumption, and its input stage are crucial factors which influence the overall system performance, and these characteristics serve as several parameters for evaluating the performance of the ADC.

For two categories in resolution and sampling speed, the application range of an ADC with 8-14 bits and one to several hundred mega samples per second (MSPS) is quite broad. Applications such as in the front-end of the base frequency or the intermediate frequency of a communication system, a biomedical imaging process such as the front-end of a ultrasonic imaging system, and the front-end of a laser array system are all within the range of applications. The ADC has many types of configurations, and when manufacturing an ADC matching the aforementioned specifications, a diverse array of configurations can be chosen. The mainstream ADC applied commercially is the pipeline analog-to-digital converter, or the pipeline ADC. However, in recent years, articles in prominent international journals have gravitated towards the successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) as a popular research direction, because the SAR ADC configuration almost does not require a direct current bias voltage. Since the SAR ADC requires a good amount of digital circuits for control and signal processing, when the manufacturing process enters the deep sub-micron, the chip area and the power consumption needed for a portion of the digital circuits can be effectively reduced. Accordingly, the SAR ADC is suitable for developing the intellectual property from a large scale system-on-chip (SoC). In many disclosures, the SAR ADC has lower consumption and smaller chip area when compared to the pipeline ADC with the same specification requirements. Therefore, the technical development of the SAR ADC framework has become an active field of research.

In the SCA SAR ADC, a key of linearity lies in matching of the composed capacitors in the DAC. Due to an influence of process variation, a designer generally uses a larger unit capacitance to satisfy the demand of matching, such that the DAC is accounted for a large proportion in chip area and power consumption in the whole SAR ADC, and the larger area of the DAC represents that a driving circuit of the DAC is required to have a greater driving force, which further increase the area and the power consumption. Since the cost of the digital circuit is quite low, if the processing technique of the digital circuit can be used to decrease or even eliminate the demand of the DAC on matching of the composed elements therein, the whole chip area and power consumption of the SCA SAR ADC can be effectively decreased.

An exemplary embodiment of the disclosure provides a method for evaluating capacitor weighting of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The method for evaluating capacitor weighting includes following steps. At least one of capacitor groups are selected as a target group, and at least one of the capacitor groups other than the target group are selected as a reference group. The reference group is used to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the target group, and a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the target group is calculated according to the weighting code. At least one of the capacitor groups not serving as the target group are selected as a new target group, and at least one of the capacitor groups other than the new target group are selected as a new reference group. The new reference group is used to measure the weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the new target group, and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the new target group is calculated according to the weighting code. The aforementioned two steps are repeated until the group weighting values of all the composed capacitors in the DAC are obtained. An equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors is obtained according to the weighting code and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in each of the capacitor groups.

An exemplary embodiment of the disclosure provides an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) including a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), a comparator, a switch device and a calibration logic circuit. The DAC includes a reference capacitor, N composed capacitors and M−1 bridge capacitors. The composed capacitors are grouped into M capacitor groups, and the bridge capacitors are used to connect each of the capacitor groups. The comparator has a first input terminal, a second input terminal and an output terminal, and is used to compare inputs of the first input terminal and the second input terminal, and output a comparison result through the output terminal. The switch device is coupled to the reference capacitor, at least one of the capacitor groups, at least one of the bridge capacitors and the comparator. The calibration logic circuit is coupled to the DAC, the comparator and the switch device. The calibration logic circuit controls the switch device to select at least one of the capacitor groups as a target group, and select at least one of the capacitor groups other than the target group as a reference group, and uses the reference group to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the target group, and calculates a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the target group according to the weighting code, and obtains an equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors according to the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors.

An exemplary embodiment of the disclosure provides a method for evaluating capacitor weighting of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The method for evaluating capacitor weighting includes following steps. A first capacitor group is used to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in a second capacitor group, and a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the second capacitor group is calculated according to the weighting code. The second capacitor group is used to measure the weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group, and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group is calculated according to the weighting code. An equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors is obtained according to the weighting code and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group and the second capacitor group.

Another exemplary embodiment of the disclosure provides an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) including a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), a comparator, a switch device and a calibration logic circuit. The DAC includes a reference capacitor, N composed capacitors and a bridge capacitor. The composed capacitors are grouped into a first capacitor group and a second capacitor group, and the bridge capacitor is used to connect the first capacitor group and the second capacitor group. The comparator has a first input terminal, a second input terminal and an output terminal, and is used to compare inputs of the first input terminal and the second input terminal, and output a comparison result through the output terminal. The switch device is coupled to the reference capacitor, the first capacitor group, the second capacitor group and the comparator. The calibration logic circuit is coupled to the DAC, the comparator and the switch device. The calibration logic circuit controls the switch device to use the first capacitor group to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the second capacitor group, and calculates a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the second capacitor group according to the weighting code, and uses the second capacitor group to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group, and calculates a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group according to the weighting code, and obtains an equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors according to the weighting code and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors.

In order to make the aforementioned and other features and advantages of the disclosure comprehensible, several exemplary embodiments accompanied with figures are described in detail below.

The disclosure discloses an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), FIG. 1 is a simplified circuit diagram of an ADC according to an embodiment of the disclosure. Referring to FIG. 1, the ADC **30** includes a digital-to-analog converter **32**, a comparator **34**, a switch device **36** and a calibration logic circuit **38**. The DAC **32** includes a reference capacitor C_{d}, a bridge capacitor C_{c }and N composed capacitors grouped into two capacitor groups CA_{1 }and CA_{2}, where the first capacitor group CA_{1 }includes T1 composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}, C_{2}^{1}, . . . , C_{T1}^{1}, and the second capacitor group CA_{2 }includes T2 composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}, C_{2}^{2}, . . . , C_{T2}^{2}. The bridge capacitor Cc is used to connect the first capacitor group CA_{1 }and the second capacitor group CA_{2}, where N is an integer greater than 1, and T1 and T2 are integers greater than 1, and a sum of T1 and T2 is equal to N.

For example, in a 12-bit ADC of N=12, the DAC thereof includes the reference capacitor C_{d }and 12 composed capacitors grouped into the first capacitor group CA_{1 }and the second capacitor group CA_{2}, where the first capacitor group CA_{1 }may include 6 composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}, C_{2}^{1}, . . . , C_{6}^{1}, and the second capacitor group CA_{2 }correspondingly includes 6 composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}, C_{2}^{2}, . . . , C_{6}^{2}. If the first capacitor group CA_{1 }includes 4 composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}, C_{2}^{1}, . . . , C_{4}^{1}, the second capacitor group CA_{2 }correspondingly includes 8 composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}, C_{2}^{2}, . . . , C_{8}^{2 }to make up the total 12 composed capacitors, which is not limited by the disclosure. Moreover, each of the aforementioned composed capacitors has a corresponding weighting value, and in the present embodiment, the weighting value of the capacitor can be interpreted as a capacitance value.

Referring to FIG. 1, the comparator **34** has a first input terminal, a second input terminal and an output terminal. The comparator **34** compares inputs of the first input terminal and the second input terminal, and outputs a comparison result through the output terminal. The switch device **36** is coupled to the reference capacitor C_{d}, the first capacitor group CA_{1}, the second capacitor group CA_{2 }and the comparator **34**. Each of the aforementioned composed capacitors has a first end and a second end, and the first ends of all the composed capacitors are coupled to the switch device **36**, and a first end of the reference capacitor C_{d }is also coupled to the switch device **36**.

The switch device **36** selects to connect the first capacitor group CA_{1 }or the second capacitor group CA_{2 }to the comparator **34**, i.e. to switch a connection relationship of the two capacitor groups in the DAC. In detail, the switching device **36** can couple the first capacitor group CA_{1 }to the comparator **34** and one end of the bridge capacitor C_{c}, and couple the other end of the bridge capacitor C_{c }to the second capacitor group CA_{2 }and the reference capacitor C_{d}. The switching device **36** can also couple the second capacitor group CA_{2 }to the comparator **34** and one end of the bridge capacitor C_{c}, and couple the other end of the bridge capacitor C_{c }to the first capacitor group CA_{1 }and the reference capacitor C_{d}. The switch device **36** can be a switch, a multiplexer, a logic circuit or a combination thereof, which is not limited by the disclosure.

Referring to FIG. 1, the calibration logic circuit **38** is coupled to the DAC **32**, the comparator **34** and the switch device **36**. The calibration logic circuit **38** controls the switch device **36** to use the first capacitor group CA_{1 }to measure weighting codes K_{1}^{2}, K_{2}^{2}, . . . , K_{T2}^{2 }of each of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}, C_{2}^{2}, . . . , C_{T2}^{2 }in the second capacitor group CA_{2}, and calculates group weighting values W_{1}^{2}-W_{T2}^{2 }of each of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{T2}^{2 }in the second capacitor group CA_{2 }according to the weighting codes K_{1}^{2}-K_{T2}^{2}. The calibration logic circuit **38** controls the switch device **36** to use the second capacitor group CA_{2 }to measure weighting codes K_{1}^{1}, K_{2}^{1}, . . . , K_{T1}^{1 }of each of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}, C_{2}^{1}, . . . , C_{T1}^{1 }in the first capacitor group CA_{1}, and calculates group weighting values W_{1}^{1}, W_{2}^{1}, . . . , W_{T1}^{1 }of each of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{T1}^{1 }in the first capacitor group CA_{1 }according to the weighting codes K_{1}^{1}-K_{T1}^{1}. The calibration logic circuit **38** obtains equivalent weighting values W′_{1}^{1}-W_{T1}^{1 }and W_{1}^{2}-W_{T2}^{2 }of each of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{T1}^{1 }and C_{1}^{2}-C_{T2}^{2 }according to the weighting codes K_{1}^{1}-K_{T1}^{1 }and K_{1}^{2}-K_{T2}^{2 }and the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}-W_{T1}^{1 }and W_{1}^{2}-W_{T2}^{2 }of each of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{T1}^{1 }and C_{1}^{2}-C_{T2}^{2}, and detailed steps of estimating the group weighting values and the equivalent weighting values are described later.

The calibration logic circuit **38** includes a successive approximation register (SAR) logic circuit **37**. The SAR logic circuit **37** is coupled to the comparator **34** and the DAC **32**, and the SAR logic circuit **37** selects an input value of all the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{T1}^{1 }and C_{1}^{2}-C_{T2}^{2 }to be one of a first value V_{1 }and a second value V_{0 }according to the output of the comparator **34**, so as to obtain the weighting codes W_{1}^{1}-W_{T1}^{1 }and W_{1}^{2}-W_{T2}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{T1}^{1 }and C_{1}^{2}-C_{T2}^{2}. In the present embodiment, the first value V_{1 }and the second value V_{0 }can be respectively voltage values VRT and VRB or voltage values V_{ref }and 0, though the disclosure is not limited thereto.

FIG. 2 is a flowchart illustrating a method for evaluating capacitor weighting according to an embodiment of the disclosure. Referring to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, the method for evaluating capacitor weighting can be applied to the ADC **30** of FIG. 1. In step S**401**, the first capacitor group CA_{1 }is used to measure the weighting codes K_{1}^{2}, K_{2}^{2}, . . . , K_{T2}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}, C_{2}^{2}, . . . , C_{T2}^{2 }in the second capacitor group CA_{2}, and the group weighting values W_{1}^{2}-W_{r2}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{T2}^{2 }in the second capacitor group CA_{2 }are calculated according to the weighting codes K_{1}^{2}-K_{T2}^{2}. A method of using the first capacitor group CA_{1 }to measure the weighting codes K_{1}^{2}-K_{T2}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{T2}^{2 }in the second capacitor group CA_{2 }may include following steps. In a first mode, for example, a sampling mode, the first value V_{1 }is input to an i^{th }composed capacitor C_{i}^{2 }of the second capacitor group CA_{2}, and the second value V_{0 }is input to the other composed capacitors, where i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T2.

In a second mode, for example, a charge redistribution mode, the second value V_{0 }is input to the i^{th }composed capacitor C_{i}^{2 }of the second capacitor group CA_{2}, and the first value V_{1 }is input to at least one of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{T1}^{1 }of the first capacitor group CA_{1}, and the first value V_{1 }is input to at least one of the composed capacitors of the second capacitor group CA_{2 }other than the i^{th }composed capacitor C_{i}^{2}, such that an output of the DAC **32** in the first mode approaches to that of the DAC **32** in the second mode, a weighting code K_{i}^{2 }of the i^{th }composed capacitor C_{i}^{2 }in the second capacitor group CA_{2 }relative to the first capacitor group CA_{1 }is obtained according to the input value of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{T1}^{1 }of the first capacitor group CA_{1 }and the input value of the composed capacitors of the second capacitor group CA_{2 }other than the i^{th }composed capacitor C_{i}^{2}.

The step of calculating the group weighting values W_{1}^{2}-W_{T2}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{T2}^{2 }in the second capacitor group CA_{2 }according to the weighting codes K_{1}^{2}-K_{T2}^{2 }is described in detail below. A group weighting value W_{i+1}^{2 }of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor C_{i+1}^{2 }of the second capacitor group CA_{2 }is calculated according to a weighting code K_{i+1}^{2 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor C_{i+1}^{2 }of the second capacitor group CA_{2 }and the group weighting values W_{1}^{2}-W_{i}^{2 }of the first, the second, . . . , and the i^{th }composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{i}^{2 }of the second capacitor group CA_{2}.

In step S**403**, the second capacitor group CA_{2 }is used to measure the weighting codes K_{1}^{1}-K_{T1}^{1 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{T1}^{1 }in the first capacitor group CA_{1}, and the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}-W_{T1}^{1 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{T1}^{1 }in the first capacitor group CA_{1 }are calculated according to the weighting codes K_{1}^{1}-K_{T1}^{1}, where the measuring method and steps thereof are similar to the aforementioned method and steps of using the first capacitor group CA_{1 }to measure the composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{T1}^{2 }of the second capacitor group CA_{2}, which are not repeated. Namely, the first capacitor group CA_{1 }and the second capacitor group CA_{2 }can be used to measure each other, so as to obtain the group weighting values of the composed capacitors in the capacitor group. The aforementioned measuring sequence is only an exemplary embodiment, for example, the second capacitor group can also be used to measure the first capacitor group first, and then the first capacitor group is used to measure the second capacitor group, which is not limited by the disclosure.

In step S**405**, the equivalent weighting values W′_{1}^{1}-W′_{T1}^{1 }and W′_{1}^{2}-W′_{T2}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{T1}^{1 }and C_{1}^{2}-C_{T2}^{2 }are obtained according to the weighting codes K_{1}^{1}-K_{T1}^{1 }and K_{1}^{2}-K_{T2}^{2 }and the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}-W_{T1}^{1 }and W_{1}^{2}-W_{T2}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{T1}^{1 }and C_{1}^{2}-C_{T2}^{2 }in the first capacitor group CA_{1 }and the second capacitor group CA_{2}. Details of the step S**405** are as follows. An equivalent weighting value W′_{i+1}^{2 }of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor C_{i+1}^{2 }of the second capacitor group CA_{2 }is calculated according to the weighting code K_{i+1}^{2 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor C_{i+1}^{2 }of the second capacitor group CA_{2}, the group weighting values W_{1}^{2}-W_{i}^{2 }of the first to the i^{th }composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{i}^{2 }of the second capacitor group CA_{2 }and the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}-W_{T1}^{1 }of the first to the T1^{th }composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{T1}^{1 }of the first capacitor group CA_{1}, or an equivalent weighting value W′_{j+1}^{1 }of a (j+l)^{th }composed capacitor C_{j+1}^{1 }of the first capacitor group CA_{1 }is calculated according to the weighting code K_{j+1}^{1 }of the (j+1)^{th }composed capacitor C_{i+1}^{1 }of the first capacitor group CA_{1}, the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}-W_{j}^{1 }of the first to the j^{th }composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{j}^{1 }of the first capacitor group CA_{1 }and the group weighting values W_{1}^{2}-W_{T2}^{2 }of the first to the T2^{th }composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{T2}^{2 }of the second capacitor group CA_{2}, where i is an integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T2, and j is an integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T1. The step S**405** is repeated by R times, where R is an integer greater than or equal to 1. In other words, after the group weighting values of each of the composed capacitors are obtained, the step S**405** is repeated to obtain new equivalent weighting values through multiple iterative calculations.

It should be noticed that in the process of calculating the equivalent weighting values, the equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in each of the capacitor groups can be used to replace the old group weighting value, and the new group weight value and the weighting code of each of the composed capacitors are again used to obtain the new equivalent weighting value, and repeat calculations are performed to obtain the equivalent weighting value closer to an actual situation. In this way, the obtained equivalent weighting values can be used to ameliorate the problem of nonlinearity of the conversion curve of the ADC caused by capacitor mismatch. In brief, the equivalent weighting value of the composed capacitor representing a more significant bit (MSB) is large, and the equivalent weighting value of the composed capacitor representing a less significant bit (LSB) is small. The obtained equivalent weighting values of the composed capacitors can be used to ameliorate conversion linearity of the ADC.

To describe the disclosure in detail, an 8-bit SCA SAR ADC is taken as an example to describe how to evaluate the weighting value of the composed capacitor. FIG. 3 is a simplified circuit diagram of an 8-bit ADC **50** according to an embodiment of the disclosure. The ADC **50** includes a DAC **52**, a comparator **54**, a switch device **56** and a calibration logic circuit **58**. The DAC **52** includes a reference capacitor C_{d}, a bridge capacitor C_{c}, and **8** composed capacitors grouped into two capacitor groups CA_{1 }and CA_{2}, where the capacitor group CA_{1 }includes four composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}, C_{2}^{1}, . . . , C_{4}^{1}, and the capacitor group CA_{2 }includes four composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}, C_{2}^{2}, C_{4}^{2}. The bridge capacitor C_{c }is used to connect the capacitor group CA_{1 }and the capacitor group CA_{2}. A coupling relation and functions of the components are the same or similar to that in the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, and details thereof are not repeated. It should be noticed that as shown in FIG. 3, the switch device **56** of the present embodiment is composed of two switches S_{ex}.

In the present embodiment, the switches S_{ex }can be switched to implement using the capacitor group CA_{1 }to measure the capacitor group CA_{2 }or using the capacitor group CA_{2 }to measure the capacitor group CA_{1}. It is assumed that the capacitor group CA_{1 }is first used to measure the capacitor group CA_{2}. In the sampling mode, the switch S_{i }is switched to connect the reference voltage V_{ref}, the switch S_{g }is turned on, and the switch S_{1}^{2 }is switched to connect the reference voltage V_{ref}, such that the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2 }is charged to the reference voltage V_{ref}, and the other switches S_{d}, S_{2}^{2}-S_{4}^{2 }and S_{1}^{1}-S_{4}^{1 }are all switched to a ground voltage, and the corresponding reference capacitor C_{d }and the composed capacitors C_{2}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }and C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }are all 0 voltage. The switch S_{g }is turned off, and the switch S_{1}^{2 }is switched to connect the ground potential. In the charge redistribution mode, the switch S_{i }is switched to connect the reference voltage V_{ref}, the switch S_{g }is turned off, and the switches S_{2}^{2}-S_{4}^{2 }and S_{1}^{1}-S_{4}^{1 }are switched according to a 8-bit control signal, and after a successive approximation operation, the voltage generated by the DAC **52** due to charging of the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2 }approaches to 0, i.e. when the open circuit equivalent outputs of the two modes approach to be equal, the weighting code of the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2 }can be obtained according to conducting states of the switches S_{2}^{2}-S_{4}^{2 }and S_{1}^{1}-S_{4}^{1}. Deduced by analogy, the weighting values of all the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }in the capacitor group CA_{1 }can be obtained according to the above method, and details thereof are not repeated.

In an ideal situation, the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }and C_{2}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }in the capacitor groups CA_{1 }and CA_{2 }can take radix-2 as capacitance values. However, due to the capacitor mismatch caused by process variation, the capacitance values of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }and C_{2}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }can be shifted. In order to clearly describe how to obtain the weighting values, in the present exemplary embodiment, it is assumed that the reference voltage V_{ref }is equal to 1V, the capacitance value of the bridge capacitor C_{c }is equal to 2C, the capacitance value of the reference capacitor C_{d }is equal to 1C, and real capacitance values of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }and C_{2}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }and weighting ratios there between are shown in a following table 1:

First, the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2 }is measured, in the sampling mode, the switch S_{i }is switched to connect the reference voltage V_{ref}, the switch S_{g }is turned on, and the switch S_{1}^{2 }is switched to connect the reference voltage V_{ref}, such that the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2 }is charged to the reference voltage V_{ref }(i.e. a cross voltage of the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2 }is 1V). The other switches S_{d}, S_{2}^{2}-S_{4}^{2 }and S_{1}^{1}-S_{4}^{1 }are all switched to the ground voltage, and the corresponding reference capacitor C_{d }and the composed capacitors C_{2}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }and C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }are all 0 voltage. Then, the switch S_{g }is turned off, and the switch S_{1}^{2 }is switched to connect the ground potential. According to the above assumption, it is known that a total capacitance value of the capacitor group CA_{2 }is 6.8C+3.5C+1.8C+1C=13.1C, and a total capacitance value of the capacitor group CA_{1 }is 5.8C+3.3C+1.9C+1C+1C=13C. A voltage of the node X is:

In the charge redistribution mode, the switch S_{i }is still switched to connect the reference voltage V_{ref}, the switch S_{g }is turned off, and the switches S_{2}^{2}-S_{4}^{2 }and S_{1}^{1}-S_{4}^{1 }are switched according to a 8-bit control signal, and after the successive approximation operation, the voltage generated by the DAC **32** due to charging of the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2 }approaches to 0, i.e. when the open circuit equivalent outputs of the two modes approach to be equal, the weighting code of the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2 }can be obtained according to conducting states of the switches S_{2}^{2}-S_{4}^{2 }and S_{1}^{1}-S_{4}^{1}. In the present exemplary embodiment, after the successive approximation operation, the obtained result indicates that the voltage

generated by turning on the switch S_{4}^{1 }and the switch S_{2}^{1 }can make the voltage of the node X to approach to 0. Namely, the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2 }of the capacitor group CA_{2 }can be equivalent to the composed capacitors C_{4}^{1 }and C_{2}^{1 }of the capacitor group CA_{1}. The weighting code K_{1}^{2 }of the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2 }can be represented by [1010]. In other words, each bit of the weighting code K_{1}^{2 }also represents conducting states of the switches S_{1}^{1}-S_{4}^{1}. The same method is used to measure each of the composed capacitors in the capacitor group CA_{2}. It should be noticed that when the composed capacitors C_{2}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }are measured, the composed capacitor with lower bit is also added to the successive approximation operation. For example, when the composed capacitor C_{2}^{2 }is measured, the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2 }is also added to the successive approximation operation. In this way, the weighting codes K_{1}^{2}-K_{4}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }of the capacitor group CA_{2 }are shown in a following table 2, though the table 2 is not used to limit the disclosure.

Then, the group weighting values W_{1}^{2}-W_{4}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }of the capacitor group CA_{2 }can be calculated according to the weighting values K_{1}^{2}-K_{4}^{2}. In detail, regarding the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2}, the group weighting value W_{1}^{2 }thereof corresponds to the weighting code K_{1}^{2 }converted from a binary code into a decimal value. Regarding the composed capacitor C_{2}^{2}, the group weighting value W_{2}^{2 }thereof is equal to the group weighting value W_{1}^{2 }plus the 4-bit weighting code K_{1}^{2 }converted from the binary code into decimal value, i.e. 10 (W_{1}^{2})+8(1000)=18(W_{2}^{2}). Deduced by analogy, the group weighting values W_{1}^{2}-W_{4}^{2 }are as that shown in a following table 3:

When the weighting codes K_{1}^{2}-K_{4}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }of the capacitor group CA_{2 }are obtained, the capacitor group CA_{1 }and the capacitor group CA_{2 }can be exchanged by switching the switch S_{ex}, so as to use the capacitor group CA_{2 }to measure the weighting codes K_{1}^{1}-K_{4}^{1 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }in the capacitor group CA_{1}, and calculate the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}-W_{4}^{1 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }in the capacitor group CA_{1 }according to the weighting codes K_{1}^{1}-K_{4}^{1}, where the measuring method and steps thereof are similar to the aforementioned method and steps of using the capacitor group CA_{2 }to measure the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }of the capacitor group CA_{1}, which are not repeated. It should be noticed that after obtaining the weighting codes K_{1}^{1}-K_{4}^{1 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1}, during a process of converting the weighting codes K_{1}^{1}-K_{4}^{1 }into the group weighting values, the obtained composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }and the group weighting values W_{1}^{2}-W_{4}^{2 }can be used for calculation, so as to obtain the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}-W_{4}^{1 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1}. For example, if the weighting code K_{1}^{1 }of the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2 }is K_{1}^{1}=[1000], the group weighting value W_{1}^{1}=W_{4}^{2}=63. According to the above descriptions, the weighting codes K_{1}^{1}-K_{4}^{1 }and the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}-W_{4}^{1 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }of the capacitor group CA_{1 }obtained according to the method of the disclosure are shown in a following table 4.

The equivalent weighting values W′_{1}^{1}-W′_{4}^{1 }and w′_{1}^{2}-W′_{4}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }and C_{1}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }are obtained according to the weighting codes K_{1}^{1}-K_{4}^{1 }and K_{1}^{2}-K_{4}^{2 }and the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}-W_{4}^{1 }and W_{1}^{2}-W_{4}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }and C_{1}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }in the capacitor group CA_{1 }and the capacitor group CA_{2}. For example, the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}-W_{4}^{1 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }in the capacitor group CA_{1 }are taken as the equivalent weighting values W′_{1}^{1}-W′_{4}^{1 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }in the capacitor group CA_{1}, and the equivalent weighting values W′_{1}^{2}-W′_{4}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }in the capacitor group CA_{2 }can be calculated according to the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}-W_{4}^{1 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1 }in the capacitor group CA_{1 }and the weighting codes K_{1}^{2}-K_{4}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }in the capacitor group CA_{2}.

In brief, the weighting code K_{1}^{2 }of the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2 }is [1010], so that the equivalent weighting value W′_{1}^{2 }of the composed capacitor C_{1}^{2 }is equal to W_{4}^{1 }plus W_{2}^{1}. The weighting code K_{1}^{2 }of the composed capacitor C_{2}^{2 }is [1-0110], so that the equivalent weighting value W′_{2}^{2 }of the composed capacitor C_{2}^{2 }is equal to W_{3}^{1 }plus W_{2}^{1 }plus W′_{1}^{2}. Deduced by analogy, the equivalent weighting values W′_{1}^{2}-W′_{4}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{4}^{2 }in the capacitor group CA_{2 }can be obtained, as that shown in a following table 5. In this way, according to the method of the disclosure, the equivalent weighting values of the composed capacitors in the DAC **52** can be evaluated, and real weighting ratios of the composed capacitors in the DAC **52** are evaluated. Comparing the table 1 and the table 5, it is known that the evaluated capacitor weighting ratios are very close to the real weighting ratios, which represents that the real weighting ratios of the capacitors can be accurately evaluated according to the measuring method of the disclosure, so as to decrease the adverse effects caused by capacitor mismatch, and ameliorate conversion linearity of the ADC.

FIG. 4 is a simplified circuit diagram of an ADC according to an embodiment of the disclosure. Referring to FIG. 4, the ADC **60** includes a DAC **62**, a comparator **64**, a switch device **66** and a calibration logic circuit **68**. The DAC **62** includes a reference capacitor C_{d}, M−1 bridge capacitors C_{C1}-C_{C(M-1) }and N composed capacitors grouped into M capacitor groups CA_{1}, . . . , CA_{M}, where the first capacitor group CA_{1 }includes T1 composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}, C_{2}^{1}, . . . , C_{T1}^{1}, the second capacitor group CA_{2 }includes T2 composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}, C_{2}^{2}, . . . , C_{T2}^{2}, and deduced by analogy, the M^{th }capacitor group CA_{M }includes TM composed capacitors C_{1}^{M}, C_{2}^{M}, . . . , C_{TM}^{M}.

For example, in case of the 8-bit ADC of N=8, the DAC thereof may include the reference capacitor C_{d}, and 8 composed capacitors grouped into the capacitor group CA_{1}, the capacitor group CA_{2 }and the capacitor group CA_{3}, where the capacitor group CA_{1 }may include 4 composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}, C_{2}^{1}, . . . , C_{4}^{1}, the capacitor group CA_{2 }includes 2 composed capacitors C_{1}^{2 }and C_{2}^{2}, and the capacitor group CA_{3 }includes 2 composed capacitors C_{1}^{3 }and C_{2}^{3}. The capacitor group CA_{1 }may also include 5 composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}, C_{2}^{1}, . . . , C_{5}^{1}, the capacitor group CA_{2 }includes 1 composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}, and the capacitor group CA_{3 }includes 2 composed capacitors C_{1}^{3 }and C_{2}^{3}. The composed capacitors may also be grouped into 4 capacitor groups CA_{1}-CA_{4}, and each of the capacitor groups CA_{1}-CA_{4 }respectively includes 2 composed capacitors, and the grouping method of the composed capacitors is not limited by the disclosure. Each of the capacitors has a corresponding weighting value, and the weighting values of the capacitors can be interpreted as capacitance values.

Referring to FIG. 4, the capacitor **64** has a first input terminal, a second input terminal and an output terminal. The comparator **64** compares inputs of the first input terminal and the second input terminal, and outputs a comparison result through the output terminal. The switch device **66** is coupled to the reference capacitor C_{d}, at least one of the capacitor groups, at least one of the bridge capacitors C_{c }and the comparator **64**. Each of the aforementioned capacitors has a first end and a second end, and the first ends of all the composed capacitors in at least one of the capacitor groups are coupled to the switch device **66**, and a first end of the reference capacitor C_{d }is also coupled to the switch device **66**. The switch device **66** can be used to switch coupling relations of the capacitor groups CA_{1}-CA_{M }in the DAC. The switch device **66** can be a switch, a multiplexer, a logic circuit or a combination thereof, which is not limited by the disclosure.

The calibration logic circuit **68** is coupled to the DAC **62**, the comparator **64** and the switch device **66**. The calibration logic circuit **68** controls the switch device **66** to select at least one of the capacitor groups as a target group, and select at least one of the capacitor groups other than the target group as a reference group. Namely, the calibration logic circuit **68** controls the switch device **66** to select at least one of the capacitor groups CA_{1}-CA_{M}, for example, the capacitor group CA_{3 }and the capacitor group CA_{5 }as target groups, or only select the capacitor group CA_{10 }as a target group, which is not limited by the disclosure. The calibration logic circuit **68** uses the reference group to measure weighting codes of the composed capacitors in the target group, and calculates group weighting values of the composed capacitors in the target group according to the weighting codes, and obtains equivalent weighting values of the composed capacitors according to the group weighting values of the composed capacitors.

The calibration logic circuit **68** controls the switch device **66** to couple the target group to the comparator **64** and one end of one of the bridge capacitors C_{c1}-C_{c(M-1)}, and couple the other end of the bridge capacitor C_{c }coupled to the target group to the reference group and the reference capacitor C_{d}. The calibration logic circuit **68** includes a successive approximation register (SAR) logic circuit **67**. The SAR logic circuit **67** is coupled to the comparator **64** and the DAC **62**, and the SAR logic circuit **67** selects an input value of all the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{TM}^{M }to be a first value V_{1 }or a second value V_{0 }according to the output of the comparator **64**, so as to obtain the weighting codes K_{1}^{1}-K_{TM}^{M }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{TM}^{M}. In the present embodiment, the first value V_{1 }and the second value V_{0 }can be respectively voltage values VRT and VRB or voltage values V_{ref }and 0, though the disclosure is not limited thereto.

FIG. 5 is a flowchart illustrating a method for evaluating capacitor weighting according to an embodiment of the disclosure. Referring to FIG. 4 and FIG. 5, the method for evaluation capacitor weighting can be applied to the ADC **60** of FIG. 4. In step S**701**, at least one of the capacitor groups are selected as a target group, and at least one of the capacitor groups other than the target group are selected as a reference group. It should be noticed that one capacitor group CA_{1 }or other capacitor group in the capacitor groups CA_{1}-CA_{M }can be selected as the target group, or a plurality of capacitor groups in the capacitor groups CA_{1}-CA_{M }can be selected as the target groups, which is not limited by the disclosure.

In step S**703**, the reference group is used to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the target group, and a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the target group is calculated according to the weighting code. Detailed steps of evaluating the group weighting values are similar to that of the embodiment of FIG. 2, which can be deduced by those skilled in the art with reference of the aforementioned descriptions, so that details of the descriptions of the steps are not repeated. It should be noticed that the so-called successive approximation method in the embodiment of FIG. 2 is a binary-search method. Moreover, another so-called unary-search method is a search method decreasing/increasing monotonically from the maximum/minimum value, though the disclosure is not limited thereto.

In step S**705**, at least one of the capacitor groups not serving as the target group are selected as a new target group, and at least one of the capacitor groups other than the new target group are selected as a new reference group. Such step is intended to obtain the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}-W_{TM}^{M }of all the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{TM}^{M }in the capacitor groups CA_{1}-CA_{M}, so that the switch device **66** can be used to switch coupling relations of the capacitor groups CA_{1}-CA_{M }to change the target group and the reference group.

Therefore, in step S**707**, the new reference group is used to measure the weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the new target group, and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the new target group is calculated according to the weighting code. Detailed steps of evaluating the group weighting values are similar to that of the embodiment of FIG. 2, which are not repeated. In step S**709**, the aforementioned two steps (the step S**705** and the step S**707**) are repeated until the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}-W_{TM}^{M }of all the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{TM}^{M }in the DAC **62** are obtained. In the method of the disclosure, one or a plurality of capacitor groups are taken as reference groups having reference weighting values to measure the equivalent weighting values of the composed capacitors in another capacitor group. The other capacitor group combination (one or plural) is used to perform weight measurement on the capacitor group that is previously taken as the reference group. According to the interactive measuring method of the capacitor groups, the equivalent weighting values of all the capacitor elements are calculated one-by-one.

In step S**711**, an equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors is obtained according to the weighting code and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in each of the capacitor groups. For example, the target group selected at any round is defined as an O group, and the corresponding reference group is defined as a P group, where the O group includes V composed comparators, and V is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to N−(M−1). A group weighting value of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor in the O group is calculated according to a weighting code K_{i+1 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor in the O group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the i^{th }composed capacitors in the O group and the group weighting values of all the composed capacitors in the P group, where i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to V. The step S**711** can be repeated by R times, where R is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1. The ADC obtains a calibrated digital output value through calculation according to the equivalent weighting values obtained after evaluation and a successive approximation result of each input signal, such that a conversion function between the analog input and the digital output of the ADC present a linear relationship.

In order to clearly describe the disclosure, another 8-bit SCA SAR ADC is taken as an example to describe how to evaluate the weighting values of the composed capacitors. FIG. 6 is a simplified circuit diagram of an 8-bit ADC **80** according to an embodiment of the disclosure. The ADC **80** includes a DAC **82**, a comparator **84**, a switch device **86** and a calibration logic circuit **88**. The DAC **82** includes a reference capacitor C_{d}, bridge capacitors C_{C1 }and C_{C2 }and 8 composed capacitors grouped into 3 capacitor groups CA_{1}, CA_{2}, CA_{3}, where the capacitor group CA_{1 }includes 2 composed capacitors C_{1}^{1 }and C_{2}^{1}, the capacitor group CA_{2 }includes 2 composed capacitors C_{1}^{2 }and C_{2}^{2}, and the capacitor group CA_{3 }includes 4 composed capacitors C_{1}^{3}, C_{2}^{3}, C_{3}^{3}, C_{4}^{3}. The bridge capacitors C_{C1 }and C_{C2 }are used to connect the capacitor group CA_{1}, the capacitor group CA_{2 }and the capacitor group CA_{3}. The coupling relations and functions of the aforementioned various components are the same or similar to that of the embodiment of FIG. 4, which are not repeated. It should be noticed that as shown in FIG. 6, the switch device **86** of the present embodiment is composed of 5 switches S_{ex1}-S_{ex5}.

In the present embodiment, it is assumed that the reference voltage V_{ref }is equal to 1V, the capacitance values of the bridge capacitors C_{C1 }and C_{C2 }are equal to 2C, the capacitance value of the reference capacitor C_{d }is equal to 1C, and real capacitance values of the composed capacitors and ratios between the composed capacitors are shown in a following table 6.

In the present embodiment, by switching the switches S_{ex1}-S_{ex5 }in the switch device **86**, at least one of the capacitor groups CA_{1}, CA_{2}, CA_{3 }are selected as the target group and at least one of the capacitor groups CA_{1}, CA_{2}, CA_{3 }are selected as the reference group. For example, the capacitor group CA_{1 }can be used to measure the capacitor group CA_{2}, or the reference group composed of the capacitor group CA_{1 }and the capacitor group CA_{2 }can be used to measure the capacitor group CA_{3}, or the capacitor group CA_{3 }can be used to measure the capacitor group CA_{1}, which is not limited by the disclosure.

It is assumed that the capacitor group CA_{3 }is selected as the target group, and the capacitor group CA_{1 }and the capacitor group CA_{2 }are selected as the reference group. In other words, the capacitor group CA_{1 }and the capacitor group CA_{2 }are used to measure the capacitor group CA_{3}. First, the composed capacitor C_{1}^{3 }representing the lowest bit in the capacitor group CA_{3 }is first measured. In the present exemplary embodiment, after the successive approximation operation, an obtained result indicates that the voltage generated by turning on the switch S_{2}^{1 }and the switch S_{2}^{2 }can make the voltage used for charging the composed capacitor C_{1}^{3 }in the beginning to approach to 0. Namely, the composed capacitor C_{1}^{3 }in the capacitor group CA_{3 }is regarded to be equivalent to the composed capacitor C_{2}^{1 }of the capacitor group CA_{1 }and the composed capacitor C_{2}^{2 }of the capacitor group CA_{2}. The weighting code K_{1}^{3 }of the composed capacitor C_{1}^{3 }can be represented by [1010]. Each bit of the weighting code K_{1}^{3 }may represent a conducting state of the switches S_{2}^{2}, S_{1}^{2}, S_{2}^{1 }and S_{1}^{1}. Then, the composed capacitors of the capacitor group CA_{3 }are measured according to the same method. The measuring method between the capacitor groups and the method of obtaining the group weighting values can refer to the embodiments of FIG. 1-FIG. **5**, and details thereof are not repeated. It is assumed that the weighting codes K_{1}^{3}-K_{4}^{3 }and the group weighting values W_{1}^{3}-W_{4}^{3 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{3}-C_{4}^{3 }in the capacitor group CA_{3 }obtained according to the method of the disclosure are shown in a following table 7, though the table 7 is not used to limit the disclosure.

After the weighting codes K_{1}^{3}-K_{4}^{3 }and the group weighting values W_{1}^{3}-W_{4}^{3 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{3}-C_{4}^{3 }in the capacitor group CA_{3 }are obtained, the switch device **86** can be switched to respectively select the capacitor group CA_{1 }and the capacitor group CA_{2 }as the target group, and select the capacitor group CA_{3 }as the reference group. In brief, the capacitor group CA_{3 }is used to respectively measure the capacitor group CA_{1 }and the capacitor group CA_{2 }to obtain the group weighting values W_{1}^{1 }and W_{2}^{1 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1 }and C_{2}^{1 }and obtain the group weighting values W_{1}^{2 }and W_{2}^{2 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{2 }and C_{2}^{2}, as that shown in a following table 8.

After the weighting codes K_{1}^{1}, K_{2}^{1}, K_{1}^{2}, K_{2}^{2}, K_{1}^{3}-K_{4}^{3 }and the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}, W_{2}^{1}, W_{1}^{2}, W_{2}^{2}, W_{1}^{3}-W_{4}^{3 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}, C_{2}^{1}, C_{1}^{2}, C_{2}^{2}, C_{1}^{3}-C_{4}^{3 }are obtained, the equivalent weighting values W′_{1}^{1}, W′_{2}^{1}, W′_{1}^{2}, W′_{2}^{2}, W′_{1}^{3}-W′_{4}^{3 }of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}, C_{2}^{1}, C_{1}^{2}, C_{2}^{2}, C_{1}^{3}-C_{4}^{3 }are obtained according to the weighting codes K_{1}^{1}, K_{2}^{1}, K_{1}^{2}, K_{2}^{2}, K_{1}^{3}-K_{4}^{3 }and the group weighting values W_{1}^{1}, W_{2}^{1}, W_{1}^{2}, W_{2}^{2}, W_{1}^{3}-W_{4}^{3 }of the composed capacitors in each of the capacitor groups CA_{1}-CA_{3}, as that shown in table 9. The capacitor group CA_{3 }can be used to measure the target group composed of the capacitor group CA_{1 }and the capacitor group CA_{2}. Therefore, the selection manner of the target group and the reference group is very flexible, the above contents are only an exemplary embodiment, which are not used to limit the disclosure. In this way, the equivalent weighting values of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}, C_{2}^{1}, C_{1}^{2}, C_{2}^{2}, C_{1}^{3}-C_{4}^{3 }in the DAC **82** can be evaluated according to the method provided by the disclosure.

According to the exemplary embodiment method provided by the disclosure, the equivalent weighting values of the composed capacitors in the DAC **82** can be evaluated, and the real weighting ratios of the composed capacitors in the DAC **82** can be evaluated. According to a following table 10, it is known that the evaluated capacitor weighting ratios are very close to the real weighting ratios, which represents that the real weighting ratios of the capacitors can be accurately evaluated according to the measuring method of the disclosure, so as to decrease the adverse effects caused by capacitor mismatch, and ameliorate conversion linearity of the ADC.

The real weighting ratios of the capacitors are accurately evaluated according to the measuring method of the disclosure, the evaluated weighting values can be used to calibrate the output codes. In detail, regarding a DAC with output data of D_{out}=(d_{N-1}d_{N-2 }. . . d_{0}), due to the capacitor mismatch, the output digital data and the input voltage of the DAC have a non-linear relationship. However, after the weighting ratios of the composed capacitors are obtained according to the measuring method of the disclosure, a following equation (1) can be used to calibrate the output digital data of the DAC.

Where, W_{i }is an equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors obtained according to the measuring method of the disclosure. H is a resolution of the ADC, and N is a number of the composed capacitors in the ADC. Generally, H is smaller than or equal to N. In case of the equivalent weighting values of the composed capacitors that are not obtained, W_{i }is equal to r^{i}, where r is an ideal ratio value of each of the composed capacitors. By using the equivalent weighting value that is closer to replace the ideal ratio value, a calibrated digital output is obtained. Since the equivalent weighting values of the composed capacitors can be accurately evaluated according to the measuring method of the disclosure, the conversion linearity of the ADC can be enhanced by calibrating the equivalent weighting values of the composed capacitors.

Moreover, implementations of the disclosure are not limited to the aforementioned embodiments, and the aforementioned embodiments can be suitably modified according to an actual demand. For example, the method for evaluating capacitor weighting provided by the disclosure can also be applied to a SAR ADC of a differential structure. FIG. 7 is a simplified circuit diagram of an ADC **90** according to an embodiment of the disclosure. The ADC **90** includes a DAC **92**, a comparator **94**, a switch device **96** and a calibration logic circuit **98**. The DAC **92** includes a reference capacitor C_{d}, a bridge capacitors C_{C }and 8 composed capacitors grouped into 2 capacitor groups CA_{1 }and CA_{2}, where the capacitor group CA_{1 }includes 4 composed capacitors C_{1}^{1}-C_{4}^{1}, and the capacitor group CA_{2 }includes 4 composed capacitors C_{1}^{2}-C_{4}^{2}. The bridge capacitors C_{C }is used to connect the capacitor group CA_{1 }and the capacitor group CA_{2}. The coupling relations and functions of the aforementioned various components are the same or similar to that of the embodiment of FIG. 3, which are not repeated. It should be noticed that as shown in FIG. 7, the ADC **90** of the present embodiment further includes a DAC **93**, where the DAC **93** is coupled to another input terminal of the comparator **94** and the switch device **96**. Therefore, the ADC **90** is a differential type SAR ADC.

The DAC **93** includes a reference capacitor C_{dd}, a bridge capacitors C_{Cd }and 8 composed capacitors grouped into 2 capacitor groups CA_{1d }and CA_{2d}, where the capacitor group CA_{1d }includes 4 composed capacitors C_{1d}^{1}-C_{4d}^{1}, and the capacitor group CA_{2d }includes 4 composed capacitors C_{1d}^{2}-C_{4d}^{2}. The bridge capacitors C_{Cd }is used to connect the capacitor group CA_{1d }and the capacitor group CA_{2d}. In the present embodiment, coupling relations and functions of various components of the DAC **93** are similar to that of the DAC **92**. The DAC **92** and the DAC **93** have a same structure, and are respectively coupled to the two input terminals of the comparator **94**.

Similarly, regardless of the DAC **92** or the DAC **93**, the weighting values of each of the capacitors can be evaluated according to the switch operation of the switch device **96** and the calculation method of the disclosure. The method for evaluating the weighting values of each of the composed capacitors can refer to the embodiments of FIG. 1 to FIG. 6, and details thereof are not repeated. It should be noticed that besides the capacitor weighting values of the DAC **92** and the DAC **93** can be respectively obtained according to the method provided by the disclosure, equivalent weighting values of linkage capacitor pairs composed of the composed capacitors in the DAC **92** and the corresponding composed capacitors in the DAC **93** can also be directly obtained. In detail, regarding the differential type SAR ADC, the capacitor groups of the DAC **92** and the capacitor groups of the DAC **93** are linked. Therefore, in the differential pair, the bit capacitance values of the corresponding composed capacitors in the DAC **92** and the DAC **93** are considered together. For example, regarding the equivalent weighting value used for calibrating a first bit of the output code, ratios of the composed capacitors C_{1}^{1 }and C_{1d}^{1 }relative to the other composed capacitors are simultaneously considered. In analog-to-digital conversion operations, weighting ratios of the capacitors in the DAC **92** and the DAC **93** and the linked equivalent weighting ratios of the corresponding composed capacitors in the two DACs can be evaluated according to the evaluation method of the disclosure. Therefore, the capacitor weighting values can be used to calibrate the digital data generated through a SAR operation, so as to enhance the conversion linearity of the input voltage and the output digital data of the ADC **90**.

In summary, in the SAR ADC of the disclosure, the demand on a relative matching degree of the composed elements of the DAC is eliminated to decrease a whole area and power consumption of the SAR ADC, and decrease a demand on driving capability of the DAC driving circuit. In a system application requiring an ADC array, for example, parallel processing analog front-end of image sensor, or analog front-end of an ultrasonic image system, etc., the low power consumption and small area ADC IP avails circuit integration, i.e. more front-end channels are integrated in a single chip, which avails reducing the system cost or development of portable system.

It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications and variations can be made to the structure of the disclosure without departing from the scope or spirit of the disclosure. In view of the foregoing, it is intended that the disclosure cover modifications and variations of this disclosure provided they fall within the scope of the following claims and their equivalents.

1. A method for evaluating capacitor weighting of a digital-to-analog converter comprising:

selecting at least one of capacitor groups as a target group, and selecting at least one of the capacitor groups other than the target group as a reference group;

using the reference group to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the target group, and calculating a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the target group according to the weighting code;

selecting at least one of the capacitor groups not serving as the target group as a new target group, and selecting at least one of the capacitor groups other than the new target group as a new reference group;

using the new reference group to measure the weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the new target group, and calculating the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the new target group according to the weighting code;

repeating the aforementioned two steps until the group weighting values of all the composed capacitors in the digital-to-analog converter are obtained; and

obtaining an equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors according to the weighting code and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in each of the capacitor groups.

selecting at least one of capacitor groups as a target group, and selecting at least one of the capacitor groups other than the target group as a reference group;

using the reference group to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the target group, and calculating a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the target group according to the weighting code;

selecting at least one of the capacitor groups not serving as the target group as a new target group, and selecting at least one of the capacitor groups other than the new target group as a new reference group;

using the new reference group to measure the weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the new target group, and calculating the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the new target group according to the weighting code;

repeating the aforementioned two steps until the group weighting values of all the composed capacitors in the digital-to-analog converter are obtained; and

obtaining an equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors according to the weighting code and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in each of the capacitor groups.

2. The method for evaluating capacitor weighting of the digital-to-analog converter as claimed in claim 1, wherein the digital-to-analog converter comprises N composed capacitors grouped into M capacitor groups and M-1 bridge capacitors, wherein N is an integer greater than 1, and M is an integer greater than or equal to 2 and is smaller than or equal to N.

3. The method for evaluating capacitor weighting of the digital-to-analog converter as claimed in claim 2, wherein the target group comprises T composed capacitors, wherein T is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to N-(M-1), and the step of using the reference group to measure the weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the target group comprises:

in a first mode, inputting a first value V**1** to an i^{th }composed capacitor Ei in the target group, and inputting a second value V**0** to other composed capacitors; and

in a second mode, inputting the second value V**0** to the i^{th }composed capacitor Ei in the target group, inputting the first value V**1** to at least one of the composed capacitors in the reference group, and inputting the first value V**1** to at least one of the composed capacitors in the target group other than the composed capacitor, such that an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the first mode approaches to an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the second mode, and obtaining the weighting code K, of the i^{th }composed capacitor in the target group relative to the reference group according to the input value of each of the composed capacitors in the reference group and the input value of the composed capacitors in the target group other than the i^{th }composed capacitor, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

in a first mode, inputting a first value V**1** to an i^{th }composed capacitor Ei in the target group, and inputting a second value V**0** to other composed capacitors; and

in a second mode, inputting the second value V**0** to the i^{th }composed capacitor Ei in the target group, inputting the first value V**1** to at least one of the composed capacitors in the reference group, and inputting the first value V**1** to at least one of the composed capacitors in the target group other than the composed capacitor, such that an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the first mode approaches to an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the second mode, and obtaining the weighting code K, of the i^{th }composed capacitor in the target group relative to the reference group according to the input value of each of the composed capacitors in the reference group and the input value of the composed capacitors in the target group other than the i^{th }composed capacitor, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

4. The method for evaluating capacitor weighting of the digital-to-analog converter as claimed in claim 2, wherein the target group comprises T composed capacitors, wherein T is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to N-(M-1), and the step of calculating the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors according to the weighting code comprises:

calculating the group weighting value of an (i+1)th composed capacitor in the target group according to the weighting code Ki+1 of the (i+1)th composed capacitor in the target group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , and the ith composed capacitors in the target group, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

calculating the group weighting value of an (i+1)th composed capacitor in the target group according to the weighting code Ki+1 of the (i+1)th composed capacitor in the target group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , and the ith composed capacitors in the target group, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

5. The method for evaluating capacitor weighting of the digital-to-analog converter as claimed in claim 2, wherein the target group selected at any round is defined as an O group, and the corresponding reference group is defined as a P group, wherein the O group comprises V composed comparators, and V is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to N-(M-1), and the step of obtaining the equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors according to the weighting code and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in each of the capacitor groups comprises:

obtaining the equivalent weighting value of an (i+1)th composed capacitor in the O group according to the weighting code Ki+1 of the (i+1)th composed capacitor in the O group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , and the ith composed capacitors in the O group and the group weighting values of all the composed capacitors in the P group, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to V; and

repeating the aforementioned step by R times, wherein R is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1.

obtaining the equivalent weighting value of an (i+1)th composed capacitor in the O group according to the weighting code Ki+1 of the (i+1)th composed capacitor in the O group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , and the ith composed capacitors in the O group and the group weighting values of all the composed capacitors in the P group, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to V; and

repeating the aforementioned step by R times, wherein R is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1.

6. An analog-to-digital converter, comprising:

a digital-to-analog converter, comprising:

a reference capacitor;

N composed capacitors, grouped into M capacitor groups; and

M-1 bridge capacitors, connecting each of the capacitor groups;

a comparator, having a first input terminal, a second input terminal and an output terminal, comparing inputs of the first input terminal and the second input terminal, and outputting a comparison result through the output terminal;

a switch device, coupled to the reference capacitor, at least one of the capacitor groups, at least one of the bridge capacitors and the comparator; and

a calibration logic circuit, coupled to the digital-to-analog converter, the comparator and the switch device, controlling the switch device to select at least one of the capacitor groups as a target group, and select at least one of the capacitor groups other than the target group as a reference group, using the reference group to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the target group, calculating a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the target group according to the weighting code, and obtaining an equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors according to the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors.

a digital-to-analog converter, comprising:

a reference capacitor;

N composed capacitors, grouped into M capacitor groups; and

M-1 bridge capacitors, connecting each of the capacitor groups;

a comparator, having a first input terminal, a second input terminal and an output terminal, comparing inputs of the first input terminal and the second input terminal, and outputting a comparison result through the output terminal;

a switch device, coupled to the reference capacitor, at least one of the capacitor groups, at least one of the bridge capacitors and the comparator; and

a calibration logic circuit, coupled to the digital-to-analog converter, the comparator and the switch device, controlling the switch device to select at least one of the capacitor groups as a target group, and select at least one of the capacitor groups other than the target group as a reference group, using the reference group to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the target group, calculating a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the target group according to the weighting code, and obtaining an equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors according to the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors.

7. The analog-to-digital converter as claimed in claim 6, wherein N is an integer greater than 1, and M is a positive integer greater than or equal to 2 and is smaller than or equal to N.

8. The analog-to-digital converter as claimed in claim 7, wherein the calibration logic circuit controls the switch device to couple the target group to the comparator and one end of one of the bridge capacitors, and couple the other end of the bridge capacitor coupled to the target group to the reference group and the reference capacitor.

9. The analog-to-digital converter as claimed in claim 7, wherein the calibration logic circuit comprises:

a successive approximation register logic circuit, coupled to the comparator and the digital-to-analog converter, and selecting an input value of all the composed capacitors to be one of a first value V**1** and a second value V**0** according to the output of the comparator, so as to obtain the weighting codes of the composed capacitors.

a successive approximation register logic circuit, coupled to the comparator and the digital-to-analog converter, and selecting an input value of all the composed capacitors to be one of a first value V**1** and a second value V**0** according to the output of the comparator, so as to obtain the weighting codes of the composed capacitors.

10. The analog-to-digital converter as claimed in claim 9, wherein the target group comprises T composed capacitors, and T is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to N-(M-1), wherein:

in a first mode, a first value V**1** in input to an i^{th }composed capacitor Ei in the target group, and a second value V**0** is input to other composed capacitors; and

in a second mode, the second value V**0** is input to the i^{th }composed capacitor Ei in the target group, the first value V**1** is input to at least one of the composed capacitors in the reference group, and the first value V**1** is input to at least one of the composed capacitors in the target group other than the i^{th }composed capacitor, such that an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the first mode approaches to an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the second mode, and the weighting code K_{i }of the i^{th }composed capacitor in the target group relative to the reference group is obtained according to the input value of each of the composed capacitors in the reference group and the input value of the composed capacitors in the target group other than the i^{th }composed capacitor, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

in a first mode, a first value V**1** in input to an i^{th }composed capacitor Ei in the target group, and a second value V**0** is input to other composed capacitors; and

in a second mode, the second value V**0** is input to the i^{th }composed capacitor Ei in the target group, the first value V**1** is input to at least one of the composed capacitors in the reference group, and the first value V**1** is input to at least one of the composed capacitors in the target group other than the i^{th }composed capacitor, such that an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the first mode approaches to an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the second mode, and the weighting code K_{i }of the i^{th }composed capacitor in the target group relative to the reference group is obtained according to the input value of each of the composed capacitors in the reference group and the input value of the composed capacitors in the target group other than the i^{th }composed capacitor, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

11. The analog-to-digital converter as claimed in claim 7, wherein the target group comprises T composed capacitors, and T is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to N-(M-1), wherein:

the calibrate logic circuit calculates the group weighting value of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor in the target group according to the weighting code K_{i+1 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor in the target group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , and the i^{th }composed capacitors in the target group, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

the calibrate logic circuit calculates the group weighting value of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor in the target group according to the weighting code K_{i+1 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor in the target group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , and the i^{th }composed capacitors in the target group, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

12. The analog-to-digital converter as claimed in claim 7, wherein

the target group selected at any round is defined as an O group, and the corresponding reference group is defined as a P group, the O group comprises V composed comparators, and V is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to N-(M-1), wherein:

the calibration logic circuit obtains the equivalent weighting value of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor in the O group according to the weighting code K_{i+1 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor in the O group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , and the i^{th }composed capacitors in the O group and the group weighting values of all the composed capacitors in the P group, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to V.

the target group selected at any round is defined as an O group, and the corresponding reference group is defined as a P group, the O group comprises V composed comparators, and V is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to N-(M-1), wherein:

the calibration logic circuit obtains the equivalent weighting value of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor in the O group according to the weighting code K_{i+1 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor in the O group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , and the i^{th }composed capacitors in the O group and the group weighting values of all the composed capacitors in the P group, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to V.

13. A method for evaluating capacitor weighting of a digital-to-analog converter comprising:

using a first capacitor group to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in a second capacitor group, and calculating a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the second capacitor group according to the weighting code;

using the second capacitor group to measure the weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group, and calculating the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group according to the weighting code; and

obtaining an equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors according to the weighting code and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group and the second capacitor group,

wherein the digital-to-analog converter comprises a bridge capacitor and N composed capacitors grouped into the first capacitor group and the second capacitor group, wherein N is an integer greater than 1.

using a first capacitor group to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in a second capacitor group, and calculating a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the second capacitor group according to the weighting code;

using the second capacitor group to measure the weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group, and calculating the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group according to the weighting code; and

obtaining an equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors according to the weighting code and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group and the second capacitor group,

wherein the digital-to-analog converter comprises a bridge capacitor and N composed capacitors grouped into the first capacitor group and the second capacitor group, wherein N is an integer greater than 1.

14. The method for evaluating capacitor weighting of the digital-to-analog converter as claimed in claim 13, wherein the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group comprises T composed capacitors, T is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to N-(M-1), and the step of using the first capacitor group to measure the weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the second capacitor group, and using the second capacitor group to measure the weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group comprises:

in a first mode, inputting a first value V**1** to an i^{th }composed capacitor Ei of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself, and inputting a second value V**0** to other composed capacitors; and

in a second mode, inputting the second value V**0** to the i^{th }composed capacitor Ei of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself, inputting the first value V**1** to at least one of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of counterpart, and inputting the first value V**1** to at least one of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself other than the i^{th }composed capacitor, such that an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the first mode approaches to an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the second mode, and obtaining the weighting code K_{i }of the i^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself relative to the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of counterpart according to the input value of each of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of counterpart and the input value of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself other than the i^{th }composed capacitor, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

in a first mode, inputting a first value V**1** to an i^{th }composed capacitor Ei of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself, and inputting a second value V**0** to other composed capacitors; and

in a second mode, inputting the second value V**0** to the i^{th }composed capacitor Ei of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself, inputting the first value V**1** to at least one of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of counterpart, and inputting the first value V**1** to at least one of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself other than the i^{th }composed capacitor, such that an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the first mode approaches to an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the second mode, and obtaining the weighting code K_{i }of the i^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself relative to the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of counterpart according to the input value of each of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of counterpart and the input value of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself other than the i^{th }composed capacitor, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

15. The method for evaluating capacitor weighting of the digital-to-analog converter as claimed in claim 13, wherein the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group comprises T composed capacitors, T is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to N-1, and the step of calculating the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group according to the weighting code comprises:

calculating the group weighting value of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself according to the weighting code K_{i+1 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , and the i^{th }composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

calculating the group weighting value of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself according to the weighting code K_{i+1 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , and the i^{th }composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

16. The method for evaluating capacitor weighting of the digital-to-analog converter as claimed in claim 13, wherein the first capacitor group comprises U composed capacitors, and the second capacitor group comprises V composed capacitors, U is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to N-1, V is equal to N-U, and the step of obtaining the equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors according to the weighting code and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group and the second capacitor group comprises:

calculating the equivalent weighting value of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the second capacitor group according to the weighting code K_{i+1 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the second capacitor group, the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the i^{th }composed capacitors of the second capacitor group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the U^{th }composed capacitors of the first capacitor group, or calculating the equivalent weighting value of a (j+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group according to the weighting code K_{j+1 }of the (j+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group, the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the j^{th }composed capacitors of the first capacitor group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the V^{th }composed capacitors of the second capacitor group, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to V, and j is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to U; and

repeating the aforementioned step by R times, wherein R is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1.

calculating the equivalent weighting value of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the second capacitor group according to the weighting code K_{i+1 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the second capacitor group, the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the i^{th }composed capacitors of the second capacitor group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the U^{th }composed capacitors of the first capacitor group, or calculating the equivalent weighting value of a (j+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group according to the weighting code K_{j+1 }of the (j+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group, the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the j^{th }composed capacitors of the first capacitor group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the V^{th }composed capacitors of the second capacitor group, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to V, and j is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to U; and

17. An analog-to-digital converter, comprising:

a digital-to-analog converter, comprising:

a reference capacitor;

N composed capacitors, grouped into a first capacitor group and a second capacitor group; and

a bridge capacitor, connecting the first capacitor group and the second capacitor group;

a comparator, having a first input terminal, a second input terminal and an output terminal, comparing inputs of the first input terminal and the second input terminal, and outputting a comparison result through the output terminal;

a switch device, coupled to the reference capacitor, the first capacitor group, the second capacitor group and the comparator; and

a calibration logic circuit, coupled to the digital-to-analog converter, the comparator and the switch device, controlling the switch device to use the first capacitor group to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the second capacitor group, calculating a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the second capacitor group according to the weighting code, using the second capacitor group to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group, calculating a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group according to the weighting code, and obtaining an equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors according to the weighting code and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors.

a digital-to-analog converter, comprising:

a reference capacitor;

N composed capacitors, grouped into a first capacitor group and a second capacitor group; and

a bridge capacitor, connecting the first capacitor group and the second capacitor group;

a switch device, coupled to the reference capacitor, the first capacitor group, the second capacitor group and the comparator; and

a calibration logic circuit, coupled to the digital-to-analog converter, the comparator and the switch device, controlling the switch device to use the first capacitor group to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the second capacitor group, calculating a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the second capacitor group according to the weighting code, using the second capacitor group to measure a weighting code of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group, calculating a group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors in the first capacitor group according to the weighting code, and obtaining an equivalent weighting value of each of the composed capacitors according to the weighting code and the group weighting value of each of the composed capacitors.

a reference capacitor;

N composed capacitors, grouped into a first capacitor group and a second capacitor group; and

a bridge capacitor, connecting the first capacitor group and the second capacitor group;

18. The analog-to-digital converter as claimed in claim 17, wherein the calibration logic circuit controls the switch device to couple the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group to the comparator and one end of the bridge capacitor, and couple the other end of the bridge capacitor to the second capacitor group or the first capacitor group and the reference capacitor.

19. The analog-to-digital converter as claimed in claim 17, wherein the calibration logic circuit comprises:

a successive approximation register logic circuit, coupled to the comparator and the digital-to-analog converter, and selecting an input value of all the composed capacitors to be one of a first value V**1** and a second value V**0** according to the output of the comparator, so as to obtain the weighting codes of the composed capacitors.

20. The analog-to-digital converter as claimed in claim 19, wherein the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group comprises T composed capacitors, N is an integer greater than 1, and T is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to N-1, wherein:

in a first mode, the first value V**1** is input to an composed capacitor Ei of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself, and the second value V**0** is input to other composed capacitors; and

in a second mode, the second value V**0** is input to the i^{th }composed capacitor Ei of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself, the first value V**1** is input to at least one of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of counterpart, and the first value V**1** is input to at least one of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself other than the i^{th }composed capacitor, an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the first mode approaches to an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the second mode, and the weighting code K_{i }of the i^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself relative to the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of counterpart is obtained according to the input value of each of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of counterpart and the input value of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself other than the i^{th }composed capacitor, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

in a first mode, the first value V**1** is input to an composed capacitor Ei of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself, and the second value V**0** is input to other composed capacitors; and

in a second mode, the second value V**0** is input to the i^{th }composed capacitor Ei of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself, the first value V**1** is input to at least one of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of counterpart, and the first value V**1** is input to at least one of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself other than the i^{th }composed capacitor, an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the first mode approaches to an output of the digital-to-analog converter in the second mode, and the weighting code K_{i }of the i^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself relative to the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of counterpart is obtained according to the input value of each of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of counterpart and the input value of the composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself other than the i^{th }composed capacitor, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

21. The analog-to-digital converter as claimed in claim 17, wherein the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group comprises T composed capacitors, N is an integer greater than 1, T is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to N-1, wherein:

the calibration logic circuit calculates the group weighting value of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself according to the weighting code K_{i+1 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , and the i^{th }composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

the calibration logic circuit calculates the group weighting value of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself according to the weighting code K_{i+1 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , and the i^{th }composed capacitors of the first capacitor group or the second capacitor group of itself, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to T.

22. The analog-to-digital converter as claimed in claim 17, wherein the first capacitor group comprises U composed capacitors, and the second capacitor group comprises V composed capacitors, N is an integer greater than 1, U is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to N-1, V is equal to N-U, wherein:

the calibration logic circuit calculates the equivalent weighting value of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the second capacitor group according to the weighting code K_{i+1 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the second capacitor group, the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the i^{th }composed capacitors of the second capacitor group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the U^{th }composed capacitors of the first capacitor group, or calculates the equivalent weighting value of a (j+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group according to the weighting code K_{j+1 }of the (j+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group, the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the j^{th }composed capacitors of the first capacitor group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the V^{th }composed capacitors of the second capacitor group, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to V, and j is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to U.

the calibration logic circuit calculates the equivalent weighting value of an (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the second capacitor group according to the weighting code K_{i+1 }of the (i+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the second capacitor group, the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the i^{th }composed capacitors of the second capacitor group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the U^{th }composed capacitors of the first capacitor group, or calculates the equivalent weighting value of a (j+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group according to the weighting code K_{j+1 }of the (j+1)^{th }composed capacitor of the first capacitor group, the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the j^{th }composed capacitors of the first capacitor group and the group weighting values of the first, the second, . . . , the V^{th }composed capacitors of the second capacitor group, wherein i is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to V, and j is a positive integer greater than or equal to 1 and is smaller than or equal to U.