Indexed on: 09 Oct '20Published on: 09 Oct '20Published in: Vaccines
Currently, there is only one licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Despite its protective efficacy against TB in children, BCG has failed to protect adults against pulmonary TB, lacks therapeutic value, and causes complications in immunocompromised individuals. Furthermore, it compromises the use of antigens present in the purified protein derivate of in the diagnosis of TB. Many approaches, e.g., whole-cell organisms, subunit, and recombinant vaccines are currently being explored for safer and more efficacious TB vaccines than BCG. These approaches have been successful in developing a large number of vaccine candidates included in the TB vaccine pipeline and are at different stages of clinical trials in humans. This paper discusses current vaccination strategies, provides directions for the possible routes towards the development of new TB vaccines and highlights recent findings. The efforts for improved TB vaccines may lead to new licensed vaccines capable of replacing/supplementing BCG and conferring therapeutic value in patients with active/latent TB.