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An algorithm for Botulinum toxin A injection for upper eyelid retraction associated with thyroid eye disease: long-term results.

Research paper by Gamze G Ozturk Karabulut, Korhan K Fazil, Basak B Saracoglu Yilmaz, Can C Ozturker, Zehra Karaağaç ZK Günaydın, Muhittin M Taskapili, Pelin P Kaynak

Indexed on: 05 Sep '20Published on: 05 Sep '20Published in: Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)



Abstract

To evaluate the efficacy and complications of transconjunctival Botulinum toxin A injections performed according to an algorithm, for the management of upper eyelid retraction associated with thyroid eye disease. Seventy one eyes of 60 patients at the inactive stage, who had undergone Botulinum toxin A injection were reviewed retrospectively. Botulinum toxin A was injected transconjunctivally, just above the superior tarsal border of the upper eyelid in doses between 2-15 units according to an algorithm, depending on the amount of retraction. Margin-reflex distances were measured according to the photographs taken under standard conditions before and after the injections at the tenth day, then the second month and the fourth month. Additional Botulinum toxin A injections were performed in patients who had an undercorrection on the tenth day. Complications such as diplopia and ptosis were recorded. The study included 38 females, 22 males with a mean age of 43.3 ± 13.1. Normal margin-reflex distances (3-4 mm) were reached in the 58 of 71 eyes (81.7%). Additional injections were needed in eight eyes (11.2%) for residual retraction on the tenth day. Ptosis was the major complication in four eyes for 1-3 weeks after injection. Upper eyelid retraction recurred after 5.1 ± 0.9 months in all patients. In the treatment of upper eyelid retraction due to thyroid eye disease, transconjunctival injection of Botulinum toxin A is an effective, safe, transient, and repeatable method with few complications in patients. The algorithm used in this study resulted in high success rate in long-term follow-up.