Indexed on: 29 Nov '11Published on: 29 Nov '11Published in: Toxicon
Immunotherapy is the only specific treatment for scorpion sting. In the present study, protective effects of polyvalent antivenom against hemodynamic disturbances, biomarkers (troponin T, creatinine kinase isoenzyme MB, Lactate dehydrogenase) changes, electrocardiogram abnormalities and histopathological complications in heart and lung induced by Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom was investigated in anesthetized rabbits. Twenty four rabbits were randomized into four equal groups: six rabbits in control group received 1 ml ultra-pure water subcutaneously (group 1). Group two received LD50 of venom (4.5 mg/kg). In the third and fourth groups, 5 ml of scorpion antivenom was administrated intravenously simultaneous with venom injection and 60 min following envenomation, respectively. Results of the present study indicate significant decrease in hemodynamic parameters following envenomation in the second group of animals. Venom injection caused edema, myocytolysis, coagulation necrosis, hemorrhage in heart as well as edema, hemorrhage and vascular thrombus in lungs. Although envenomed rabbits presented rises in LDH and TnT but no alteration in CK-MB was observed. Electrocardiogram monitoring of rabbits showed ST elevation and inverted T waves. Simultaneous administration of antivenom and venom prevented entirely the clinical signs, hemodynamic disturbances, markers changes, ECG abnormalities and histopathological damages. Delayed immunotherapy gradually ameliorated clinical signs, hemodynamic disturbances and markers changes related to envenomation. Histopathological evaluation showed slight alterations such as mild myocytolysis in heart and mild edema in lung following delayed immunotherapy. In conclusion, scorpion antivenom administration has preventive, neutralizing and curative properties for M. eupeus scorpion envenomation, if it would be applied at optimum time, dose and route.