Indexed on: 06 Dec '11Published on: 06 Dec '11Published in: American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology
This study was designed to determine whether the 24-h rhythms of clock gene expression and vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contractile responses are altered in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Control and db/db mice were euthanized at 6-h intervals throughout the day. The aorta, mesenteric arteries, heart, kidney, and brain were isolated. Clock and target gene mRNA levels were determined by either real-time PCR or in situ hybridization. Isometric contractions were measured in isolated aortic helical strips, and pressor responses to an intravenous injection of vasoconstrictors were determined in vivo using radiotelemetry. We found that the 24-h mRNA rhythms of the following genes were suppressed in db/db mice compared with control mice: the clock genes period homolog 1/2 (Per1/2) and cryptochrome 1/2 (Cry1/2) and their target genes D site albumin promoter-binding protein (Dbp) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (Pparg) in the aorta and mesenteric arteries; Dbp in the heart; Per1, nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Rev-erba), and Dbp in the kidney; and Per1 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The 24-h contractile variations in response to phenylephrine (α(1)-agonist), ANG II, and high K(+) were significantly altered in the aortas from db/db mice compared with control mice. The diurnal variations of the in vivo pressor responses to phenylephrine and ANG II were lost in db/db mice. Moreover, the 24-h mRNA rhythms of the contraction-related proteins Rho kinase 1/2, PKC-potentiated phosphatase inhibitory protein of 17 kDa, calponin-3, tropomyosin-1/2, and smooth muscle protein 22-α were suppressed in db/db mice compared with control mice. Together, our data demonstrated that the 24-h rhythms of clock gene mRNA, mRNA levels of several contraction-related proteins, and VSM contraction were disrupted in db/db mice, which may contribute to the disruption of their blood pressure circadian rhythm.