Indexed on: 01 Oct '95Published on: 01 Oct '95Published in: American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
Tissue injury that occurs as a result of ischemia and subsequent reperfusion is characterized by endothelial cell injury, edema formation, and the influx of inflammatory leukocytes. Two macrophage-derived proinflammatory cytokines which may play a critical role in cellular injury and leukocyte recruitment/activation that occurs in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion injury are tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha). To determine if modulation of ambient oxygen tensions in vitro alters the expression of proinflammatory cytokines from activated macrophages, murine alveolar macrophages (AMO) were cultured in various combinations of ambient oxygen concentrations, then the supernatant fluid and cell pellet assayed for the presence of TNF and MIP-1 alpha messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein. We demonstrated that conditions of anoxia (95% nitrogen/5% CO2) or hyperoxia (95% oxygen/5% CO2) independently resulted in the increased expression of both TNF and MIP-1 alpha mRNA and protein from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated AMO, as compared with cells cultured in room air. The specific culture condition of anoxia (x 6 h) followed by hyperoxia (x 18 h) produced the greatest increases in both TNF and MIP-1 alpha, suggesting that when following a period of anoxic priming, oxygen stress results in exaggerated cytokine production. A period of at least 4.5 to 6 h of anoxia prior to hyperoxic exposure was found to be the minimal time required for anoxic priming. Furthermore, the coincubation of LPS-treated AMO with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) attenuated the anoxia-hyperoxia-induced increases in TNF and MIP-1 alpha mRNA by 23% and 34%, respectively. These findings suggested that alterations in ambient oxygen tension can regulate the expression of TNF and MIP-1 alpha from activated AMO, and that oxidant-related cytokine production may represent an important mechanism by which inflammation occurs in the clinical settings of ischemia-reperfusion injury and hyperoxia.