Allosteric coextraction of sodium and metal ions with calix[4]arene derivatives 1

Research paper by Keisuke Ohto, Hideaki Ishibashi, Hidetaka Kawakita, Katsutoshi Inoue, Tatsuya Oshima

Indexed on: 28 Jul '09Published on: 28 Jul '09Published in: Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry


Solvent extraction of three alkali metal ions with p-t-octylcalix[6]arene hexacarboxylic acid, p-t-octylcalix[4]arene tetracarboxylic acid, corresponding linear trimeric and monomeric analogs was investigated. Cyclic tetramer selectively extracts sodium ion among alkali ions at extremely low pH, while the corresponding cyclic hexamer, the trimer, and the monomer exhibited only poor extraction ability for all alkali metals examined. The detailed extractive investigation of sodium ions with the cyclic tetramer was carried out. It was found that two sodium ions are simultaneously extracted by a single molecule of calix[4]arene derivative and that the second sodium extraction is facilitated by the uptake of the first sodium. The self-coextraction mechanism of sodium ions proposed in the present paper also strongly supports allosteric coextraction of sodium and other metal ions. In the competitive extraction of four alkali metal ions, potassium ion was slightly extracted as the second ion at low pH region, whereas it was hardly extracted in the individual extraction system. The result also supports the coextraction mechanism and role of the first-extracted sodium ion as an allosteric trigger. The extraction equilibrium constants of the cyclic tetramer and two sodium ions, Kex1 and Kex2, were estimated.