Indexed on: 14 Sep '13Published on: 14 Sep '13Published in: Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
Advanced glycated end-products (AGEs) are ligands of the receptor for AGEs and increase in diabetic disease. MAPK organizer 1 (Morg1) via its binding partner prolyl-hydroxylase domain (PHD)-3 presumably plays a role in the regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α transcriptional activation. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of AGEs on Morg1 expression and its correlation to PHD3 activity and HIF-transcriptional activity in various renal cell types. The addition of glycated BSA (AGE-BSA) significantly up-regulated Morg1 mRNA levels in murine mesangial cells and down-regulated it in murine proximal tubular cells and differentiated podocytes. These effects were reversible when the cells were preincubated with a receptor for α-AGE antibody. AGE-BSA treatment induced a relocalization of the Morg1 cellular distribution compared with nonglycated control-BSA. Analysis of PHD3 activity demonstrated an elevated PHD3 enzymatic activity in murine mesangial cells but an inhibition in murine proximal tubular cells and podocytes after the addition of AGE-BSA. HIF-transcriptional activity was also affected by AGE-BSA treatment. Reporter gene assays and EMSAs showed that AGEs regulate HIF- transcriptional activity under nonhypoxic conditions in a cell type-specific manner. In proximal tubular cells, AGE-BSA stimulation elevated mainly HIF-1α transcriptional activity and to a lesser extent HIF-2α. We also detected an increased expression of the HIF-1α and the HIF-2α proteins in kidneys from Morg1 heterozygous (HZ) placebo mice compared with the Morg1 wild-type (WT) placebo-treated mice, and the HIF-1α protein expression in the Morg1 HZ streptozotocin-treated mice was significantly higher than the WT streptozotocin-treated mice. Analysis of isolated mesangial cells from Morg1 HZ (±) and WT mice showed an inhibited PHD3 activity and an increased HIF-transcriptional activity in cells with only one Morg1 allele. These findings are important for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy.