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ADHD Prevalence in Spanish Preschoolers: Comorbidity, Socio-Demographic Factors, and Functional Consequences.

Research paper by Josefa J Canals, Paula P Morales-Hidalgo, M Claustre MC Jané, Edelmira E Domènech

Indexed on: 25 Mar '16Published on: 25 Mar '16Published in: Journal of attention disorders



Abstract

The object was to examine the prevalence of ADHD among preschoolers, analyzing comorbidity, and the association with socio-demographic factors.We conducted a two-phase epidemiological study of 1,104 preschoolers aged 3 to 6 years in Catalonia, Spain. The Early Childhood Inventory-4 (ECI-4) was administered to parents and teachers. Children at risk of ADHD were assessed using open-ended face-to-face interviews and were observed in a school setting. ADHD diagnoses were based onDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(4th ed.;DSM-IV) criteria.The prevalence of ADHD diagnosis was 5.4%. Male sex and first-born status were risk factors for ADHD. Parents reported more symptoms (12.9%) than teachers (8.7%). Behavioral problems (odds ratio [OR] = 12,p= .001), autism spectrum disorder problems (OR = 9.5,p= .001), and obsessive-compulsive problems and tics (OR = 5.9,p= .001) were specifically related to ADHD diagnosis. Mother's health status and school achievement were lower in ADHD children.Even at early stages of development, ADHD has high rates of comorbidity and a significant impact on school performance and family health.