Indexed on: 06 Jul '04Published on: 06 Jul '04Published in: Neurochemistry International
In addition to the somatodendritic region, myenteric motoneuron terminals are endowed with nicotinic autoreceptors. We aimed at investigating the effect of nicotinic receptor (nAChR) activation on [3H]-acetylcholine ([3H]-ACh) release from longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the rat ileum and to evaluate whether this could be modulated by adenosine, an endogenous neuromodulator typically operating changes in intracellular cyclic AMP. The nAChR agonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP, 1-30 microM, 3 min) increased [3H]-ACh release in a concentration-dependent manner. DMPP (30 microM)-induced [3H]-ACh outflow was attenuated by hexamethonium (0.1-1 mM), tubocurarine (1-5 microM), or by removing external Ca2+ (plus EGTA, 1 mM). In contrast to veratridine (0.2-10 microM)-induced [3H]-ACh release, the DMPP (30 microM)-induced outflow was resistant to tetrodotoxin (1 microM) and cadmium (0.5 mM). Pretreatment with adenosine deaminase (0.5 U/mL) or with the adenosine A(2A)-receptor antagonist, ZM 241385 (50 nM), enhanced nAChR-induced transmitter release. Activation of A(2A) receptors with CGS 21680C (3 nM) reduced the DMPP-induced release of [3H]-ACh. CGS 21680C (3 nM) inhibition was prevented by MDL 12,330A (10 microM, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor) and by H-89 (10 microM, an inhibitor of protein kinase A), but was potentiated by rolipram (300 microM, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor). DMPP-induced transmitter release was decreased by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (1 mM, a protein kinase A activator), rolipram (300 microM), and forskolin (3 microM, an activator of adenylate cyclase). Both MDL 12,330A (10 microM) and H-89 (10 microM) facilitated DMPP-induced release of [3H]-ACh. The results indicate that nAChR-induced [3H]-ACh release is triggered by the influx of Ca2+, independent of voltage-sensitive calcium channels, presumably directly through nAChRs located on myenteric axon terminals. It was also shown that endogenous adenosine, activating A(2A) receptors coupled to the adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP transducing system, is tonically downregulating this nAChR-mediated control of [3H]-ACh release.