Additive structure in qualitative data: An alternating least squares method with optimal scaling features

Research paper by Jan de Leeuw, Forrest W. Young, Yoshio Takane

Indexed on: 01 Dec '76Published on: 01 Dec '76Published in: Psychometrika


A method is developed to investigate the additive structure of data that (a) may be measured at the nominal, ordinal or cardinal levels, (b) may be obtained from either a discrete or continuous source, (c) may have known degrees of imprecision, or (d) may be obtained in unbalanced designs. The method also permits experimental variables to be measured at the ordinal level. It is shown that the method is convergent, and includes several previously proposed methods as special cases. Both Monte Carlo and empirical evaluations indicate that the method is robust.