Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity assessment of the aqueous extract leaves of Ficus glumosa Del. (Moraceae) in rodents.

Research paper by Fidèle F Ntchapda, Djedouboum D Abakar, Blaise B Kom, Paulin P Nana, Adjia A Hamadjida, Théophile T Dimo

Indexed on: 25 Sep '15Published on: 25 Sep '15Published in: Journal of intercultural ethnopharmacology


Ficus glumosa Del (Moraceae), a plant used in traditional medicine in Cameroon, Senegal, and East Africa for the treatment of edema, hemorrhoid, cardiovascular diseases especially hypertension.The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of the aqueous extract of the leaves of F.glumosa in acute and sub-chronic administration in rodents.Acute toxicity was evaluated on 3 months old mice of both sexes and weighing 20-30 g. A single dose (2-12 g/kg) of F. glumosa was administered orally to mice. Animal behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were determined for 14 days. In sub-chronic toxicity studied in both sexes of 9 weeks old rats and weighing 100-120 g at the start of the experiment, animals were treated orally with a daily dose of 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract of the leaves of F. glumosa for 6 weeks. The body weight change, food, and water consumption, were determined throughout the experimental period, while the relative organ weights, the hematological and biochemical parameters of blood and urine, as well as the histology of tissues kidney and liver, were recorded at the end of the experiment.For acute treatment, no dose used induced critical behavioral changes or death. In sub-chronic treatment, daily oral administration of F. glumosa at the dose of 300, 600, and 1200 mg/kg resulted in a significant increase in body weight relative to food and water consumption in the last week of treatment. The relative organ weights were not affected by treatment. No hematological changes were observed except the significant increase in platelets. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, increased while the total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, conjugated bilirubin, and total bilirubin significantly decreased. Index of renal function showed a decrease of creatinine, urea, uric acid and Na(+), Cl(-) and Ca(2+), and inorganic phosphate. The histology of liver and kidney showed no significant alteration of tissue.These observations support the traditional use of F. glumosa in the treatment of hypertension. These results have shown that F. glumosa has a safety margin for therapeutic use.