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Acute and genotoxic profile of a dimeric impurity of cefotaxime.

Research paper by Shiv Kumar SK Agarwal, Upendra U Bhatnagar, Navin N Rajesh

Indexed on: 28 May '04Published on: 28 May '04Published in: International journal of toxicology



Abstract

The manufacturing and storage of cefotaxime produces different impurities of various concentrations, which may influence the efficacy and safety of the drugs. Because no report of toxicity data is available on the impurities of cefotaxime, the present acute and genotoxicity studies were designed and conducted to provide the information for establishing the safety profile and qualification of the dimeric impurity. Histidine-requiring mutants of Salmonella typhimurium TA97a, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 strains, with or without metabolic activation (S-91, were used for point-mutation tests. Neither increase in numbers of revertants, indicative of mutagenic activity, nor inhibition of bacterial growth, indicative of cytotoxicity, was observed when the dimeric impurity of cefotaxime at concentrations of 0.62, 1.85, 5.56, 16.67, and 50 microg/plate was incorporated into plates containing S. typhimurium bacterial strains. Cultures of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells at a cell density of 2 x 10(5) cells per culture were exposed to the dimeric impurity of cefotaxime at the concentration of 11.25, 22.5, and 45 mg per culture, with or without metabolic activation, and harvested at 18 h after exposure. No chromosomal aberrations in the cultured mammalian cells were recorded. Acute intramuscular administration of the dimeric impurity of cefotaxime in Sprague-Dawley rats did not result in any clinical signs and gross pathological changes up to 2000 mg/kg-body weight. The results of these studies indicated that the dimeric impurity of cefotaxime is nonmutagenic in Ames test, nonclastogenic in vitro, and acutely nontoxic in rats.