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Acrylonitrile insertion reactions of cationic palladium alkyl complexes.

Research paper by Fan F Wu, Stephen R SR Foley, Christopher T CT Burns, Richard F RF Jordan

Indexed on: 11 Feb '05Published on: 11 Feb '05Published in: Journal of the American Chemical Society



Abstract

The reactions of acrylonitrile (AN) with "L(2)PdMe+" species were investigated; (L(2) = CH(2)(N-Me-imidazol-2-yl)(2) (a, bim), (p-tolyl)(3)CCH(N-Me-imidazol-2-yl)(2) (b, Tbim), CH(2)(5-Me-2-pyridyl)(2) (c, CH(2)py'(2)), 4,4'-Me(2)-2,2'-bipyridine (d), 4,4'-(t)Bu(2)-2,2'-bipyridine (e), (2,6-(i)Pr(2)-C(6)H(3))N=CMeCMe=N(2,6-(i)Pr(2)-C(6)H(3)) (f)). [L(2)PdMe(NMe(2)Ph)][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] (2a-c) and [{L(2)PdMe}(2)(mu-Cl)][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] (2d-f) react with AN to form N-bound adducts L(2)Pd(Me)(NCCH=CH(2))(+) (3a-f). 3a-e undergo 2,1 insertion to yield L(2)Pd{CH(CN)Et}+, which form aggregates [L(2)Pd{CH(CN)Et}](n)(n)(+) (n = 1-3, 4a-e) in which the Pd units are proposed to be linked by PdCHEtCN- - -Pd bridges. 3f does not insert AN at 23 degrees C. 4a-e were characterized by NMR, ESI-MS, IR and derivatization to L(2)Pd{CH(CN)Et}(PR(3))+ (R = Ph (5a-e), Me (6a-c)). 4a,b react with CO to form L(2)Pd{CH(CN)Et}(CO)+ (7a,b). 7a reacts with CO by slow reversible insertion to yield (bim)Pd{C(=O)CH(CN)Et}(CO)+ (8a). 4a-e do not react with ethylene. (Tbim)PdMe+ coordinates AN more weakly than ethylene, and AN insertion of 3b is slower than ethylene insertion of (Tbim)Pd(Me)(CH(2)=CH(2))(+) (10b). These results show that most important obstacles to insertion polymerization or copolymerization of AN using L(2)PdR+ catalysts are the tendency of L(2)Pd{CH(CN)CH(2)R}+ species to aggregate, which competes with monomer coordination, and the low insertion reactivity of L(2)Pd{CH(CN)CH(2)R}(substrate)+ species.