Indexed on: 29 Jul '04Published on: 29 Jul '04Published in: American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with increased risk of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease and profound alteration of plasma lipid profile. Uremic dyslipidemia is marked by increased plasma concentration of ApoB-containing lipoproteins and impaired high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. These abnormalities are, in part, due to acquired LCAT deficiency and upregulation of hepatic acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). ACAT catalyzes intracellular esterification of cholesterol, thereby promoting hepatic production of ApoB-containing lipoproteins and constraining HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in the peripheral tissues. In view of the above considerations, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of ACAT may ameliorate CRF-induced dyslipidemia. 5/6 Nephrectomized rats were treated with either ACAT inhibitor IC-976 (30 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) or placebo for 6 wk. Sham-operated rats served as controls. Key cholesterol-regulating enzymes, plasma lipids, and creatinine clearance were measured. The untreated CRF rats exhibited increased plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL (VLDL) cholesterol, unchanged plasma HDL cholesterol, elevated total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, reduced liver microsomal free cholesterol, and diminished creatinine clearance. This was accompanied by reduced plasma LCAT, increased hepatic ACAT-2 mRNA, ACAT-2 protein and ACAT activity, and unchanged hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase. ACAT inhibitor raised plasma HDL cholesterol, lowered LDL and VLDL cholesterol, and normalized total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio without changing total cholesterol concentration (hence, a shift from ApoB-containing lipoproteins to HDL). This was accompanied by normalizations of hepatic ACAT activity and plasma LCAT. In conclusion, inhibition of ACAT reversed LCAT deficiency and improved plasma HDL level in CRF rats. Future studies are needed to explore the efficacy of ACAT inhibition in humans with CRF.