Indexed on: 25 Dec '15Published on: 25 Dec '15Published in: Journal of Surgical Education
Leadership is particularly important in complex highly interprofessional health care contexts involving a number of staff, some from the same specialty (intraprofessional), and others from different specialties (interprofessional). The authors recently published the concept of "The Burns Suite" (TBS) as a novel simulation tool to deliver interprofessional and teamwork training. It is unclear which leadership behaviors are the most important in an interprofessional burns resuscitation scenario, and whether they can be modeled on to current leadership theory. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive video analysis of leadership behaviors within TBS.A total of 3 burns resuscitation simulations within TBS were recorded. The video analysis was grounded-theory inspired. Using predefined criteria, actions/interactions deemed as leadership behaviors were identified. Using an inductive iterative process, 8 main leadership behaviors were identified. Cohen's κ coefficient was used to measure inter-rater agreement and calculated as κ = 0.7 (substantial agreement). Each video was watched 4 times, focusing on 1 of the 4 team members per viewing (senior surgeon, senior nurse, trainee surgeon, and trainee nurse). The frequency and types of leadership behavior of each of the 4 team members were recorded. Statistical significance to assess any differences was assessed using analysis of variance, whereby a p < 0.05 was taken to be significant. Leadership behaviors were triangulated with verbal cues and actions from the videos.All 3 scenarios were successfully completed. The mean scenario length was 22 minutes. A total of 362 leadership behaviors were recorded from the 12 participants. The most evident leadership behaviors of all team members were adhering to guidelines (which effectively equates to following Advanced Trauma and Life Support/Emergency Management of Severe Burns resuscitation guidelines and hence "maintaining standards"), followed by making decisions. Although in terms of total frequency the senior surgeon engaged in more leadership behaviors compared with the entire team, statistically there was no significant difference between all 4 members within the 8 leadership categories. This analysis highlights that "distributed leadership" was predominant, whereby leadership was "distributed" or "shared" among team members. The leadership behaviors within TBS also seemed to fall in line with the "direction, alignment, and commitment" ontology.Effective leadership is essential for successful functioning of work teams and accomplishment of task goals. As the resuscitation of a patient with major burns is a dynamic event, team leaders require flexibility in their leadership behaviors to effectively adapt to changing situations. Understanding leadership behaviors of different team members within an authentic simulation can identify important behaviors required to optimize nontechnical skills in a major resuscitation. Furthermore, attempting to map these behaviors on to leadership models can help further our understanding of leadership theory. Collectively this can aid the development of refined simulation scenarios for team members, and can be extrapolated into other areas of simulation-based team training and interprofessional education.