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This board is owned by Matt Holland, LKS ASE, Librarian. Contact Matt.Holland@nwas.nhs.uk.


Hosts recent articles from research based journals. Pinboard started in September 2016.


This board collates published research on the prehospital and paramedic Practice.


The board is aimed at those working in Ambulance Services and Prehospital Care. Anyone can look.


The board is updated regularly. Somewhere between daily and weekly depending on the volume of publication.

Who is responsible

This board is maintained and run by Matt Holland, Librarian LKS ASE Matt.Holland@nwas.nhs.uk.

More about LKS ASE

Check the LKS ASE website to find out more about us. Follow us on Twitter, our Twitter handle is @NWASLibrary.


Frequent use of emergency departments by older people: a comparative cohort study of characteristics and outcomes.

Abstract: To characterise older people who frequently use emergency departments (EDs) and compare patient outcomes with older non-frequent ED attenders. Retrospective comparative cohort study. Logistic regression modelling of patient characteristics and health service usage, comparing older frequent ED attenders (≥4 ED attendances in 12 months) to non-frequent ED attenders. Three Australian public hospital EDs, with a total of 143 327 emergency attendances in the 12 months. People aged ≥65 years attending the ED in financial year 2013/2014. The primary outcome was frequent ED use; secondary outcomes were ED length of stay, discharge destination from ED, hospital length of stay, re-presentation within 48 h, hospital readmission within 30 days and in-hospital mortality. Five percent of older people were frequent attenders (n = 1046/21 073), accounting for 16.9% (n = 5469/32 282) of all attendances by older people. Frequent ED attenders were more likely to be male, aged 75-84 years, arrive by ambulance and have a diagnosis relating to chronic illness. Frequent attenders stayed 0.4 h longer in ED (P < 0.001), were more likely to be admitted to hospital (69.2% vs 67.2%; P = 0.004), and had a 1 day longer hospital stay (P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality for older frequent ED attenders was double that of non-frequent attenders (7.0% vs 3.2%, P < 0.001) over 12 months. Older frequent ED attenders had more chronic disease and care needs requiring hospital admission than non-frequent attenders. A new approach to care planning and coordination is recommended, to optimise the patient journey and improve outcomes.

Pub.: 17 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Effect of Pre-Hospital Red Blood Cell Transfusion on Mortality and Time of Death in Civilian Trauma Patients.

Abstract: Current management principles of haemorrhagic shock after trauma emphasize earlier transfusion therapy to prevent dilution of clotting factors and correct coagulopathy. London's air ambulance (LAA) was the first UK civilian pre-hospital service to routinely offer pre-hospital red blood cell (RBC) transfusion (phRTx). We investigated the effect of phRTx on mortality. Retrospective trauma database study comparing mortality before-implementation with after-implementation of phRTx in exsanguinating trauma patients. Univariate logistic regression was performed for the unadjusted association between phRTx and mortality was performed, and multiple logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. We identified 623 subjects with suspected major haemorrhage. We excluded 84 (13.5%) patients due to missing data on survival status. Overall 187 (62.3%) patients died in the before phRTx period and 143 (59.8%) died in the after phRTx group. There was no significant improvement in overall survival after the introduction of phRTx (p = 0.554). Examination of pre-hospital mortality demonstrated 126 deaths in the pre-phRTx group (42.2%) and 66 deaths in the RBC administered group (27.6%) There was a significant reduction in pre-hospital mortality in the group who received RBC (p < 0.001). phRTx was associated with increased survival to hospital, but not overall survival. The "delay death" effect of phRTx carries an impetus to further develop in-hospital strategies to improve survival in severely bleeding patients.

Pub.: 18 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Pre-hospital advanced airway management by anaesthetist and nurse anaesthetist critical care teams: a prospective observational study of 2028 pre-hospital tracheal intubations.

Abstract: Pre-hospital tracheal intubation success and complication rates vary considerably among provider categories. The purpose of this study was to estimate the success and complication rates of pre-hospital tracheal intubation performed by physician anaesthetist or nurse anaesthetist pre-hospital critical care teams. Data were prospectively collected from critical care teams staffed with a physician anaesthetist or a nurse anaesthetist according to the Utstein template for pre-hospital advanced airway management. The patients served by six ambulance helicopters and six rapid response vehicles in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden from May 2015 to November 2016 were included. The critical care teams attended to 32 007 patients; 2028 (6.3%) required pre-hospital tracheal intubation. The overall success rate of pre-hospital tracheal intubation was 98.7% with a median intubation time of 25 s and an on-scene time of 25 min. The majority (67.0%) of the patients' tracheas were intubated by providers who had performed >2500 tracheal intubations. The success rate of tracheal intubation on the first attempt was 84.5%, and 95.9% of intubations were completed after two attempts. Complications related to pre-hospital tracheal intubation were recorded in 10.9% of the patients. Intubations after rapid sequence induction had a higher success rate compared with intubations without rapid sequence induction (99.4% vs 98.1%; P=0.02). Physicians had a higher tracheal intubation success rate than nurses (99.0% vs 97.6%; P=0.03). When performed by experienced physician anaesthetists and nurse anaesthetists, pre-hospital tracheal intubation was completed rapidly with high success rates and a low incidence of complications. NCT 02450071. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Pub.: 18 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Preventing emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalisations of older adults with cognitive impairment compared with the general senior population: what do we know about avoidable incidents? Results from a scoping review.

Abstract: Older cognitively impaired adults present a higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality following a visit to the emergency department (ED). Better understanding of avoidable incidents is needed to prevent them and the associated ED presentations in community-dwelling adults. This study aimed to synthetise the actual knowledge concerning these incidents leading this population to ED presentation, as well as possible preventive measures to reduce them. A scoping review was performed according to the Arksey and O'Malley framework. Scientific and grey literature published between 1996 and 2017 were examined in databases (Medline, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health, Ageline, Scopus, ProQuest Dissertations/theses, Evidence-based medecine (EBM) Reviews, Healthstar), online library catalogues, governmental websites and published statistics. Sources discussing avoidable incidents leading to ED presentations were included and then extended to those discussing hospitalisation and mortality due to a lack of sources. Data (type, frequency, severity and circumstances of incidents, preventive measures) was extracted using a thematic chart, then analysed with content analysis. 67 sources were included in this scoping review. Five types of avoidable incidents (falls, burns, transport accidents, harm due to self-negligence and due to wandering) emerged, and all but transport accidents were more frequent in cognitively impaired seniors. Differences regarding circumstances were only reported for burns, as scalding was the most prevalent mechanism of injury for this population compared with flames for the general senior population. Multifactorial interventions and implications of other professionals (eg, pharmacist, firefighters) were reported as potential interventions to reduce avoidable incidents. However, few preventive measures were specifically tested in this population. Primary research that screens for cognitive impairment and involves actors (eg, paramedics) to improve our understanding of avoidable incidents leading to ED visits is greatly needed. This knowledge is essential to develop preventive measures tailored to the needs of older cognitively impaired adults. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

Pub.: 19 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Development of sustainable community paramedicine programmes: a case study in Pennsylvania.

Abstract: Community paramedicine (CP) models have been applied across rural and urban communities in support of healthcare delivery systems for nearly two decades. However, there is still insufficient information regarding the development of sustainable CP programmes. This study explores the strategies used by active CP programmes and investigates their operational statuses, community demographics, financial models and challenges for programme development. A series of interviews was conducted with four CP programmes in Pennsylvania, USA, which are affiliated with a local government, a health system, an ambulance service and an emergency medical service, respectively. Each CP programme uses its own model with unique goals, as well as providing corresponding services/care based on the demands from their communities. Three CP programmes in the study were mainly aimed at reducing healthcare resource utilisation (ie, reduce readmissions or ED utilisation), but one of the programmes developed a sustainable model aiding newborn care in the community. Establishing a solid reimbursement mechanism and working closely with collaborators are two major strategies for developing sustainable CP programmes. Complete data collection and a programme evaluation process will also be important to demonstrate the value of its CP models to potential collaborators and policy-makers. However, the cost-effectiveness of a CP model is still not easy to identify due to the separate programmes being developed without uniform goals. The challenges and solutions from the four programmes under study can provide a road map for the development of CP programmes for other communities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

Pub.: 19 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Information, Vol. 9, Pages 29: Pedagogy before Technology: A Design-Based Research Approach to Enhancing Skills Development in Paramedic Science Using Mixed Reality

Abstract: In health sciences education, there is growing evidence that simulation improves learners’ safety, competence, and skills, especially when compared to traditional didactic methods or no simulation training. However, this approach to simulation becomes difficult when students are studying at a distance, leading to the need to develop simulations that suit this pedagogical problem and the logistics of this intervention method. This paper describes the use of a design-based research (DBR) methodology, combined with a new model for putting ‘pedagogy before technology’ when approaching these types of education problems, to develop a mixed reality education solution. This combined model is used to analyse a classroom learning problem in paramedic health sciences with respect to student evidence, assisting the educational designer to identify a solution, and subsequently develop a technology-based mixed reality simulation via a mobile phone application and three-dimensional (3D) printed tools to provide an analogue approximation for an on-campus simulation experience. The developed intervention was tested with students and refined through a repeat of the process, showing that a DBR process, supported by a model that puts ‘pedagogy before technology’, can produce over several iterations a much-improved simulation that results in a simulation that satisfies student pedagogical needs.

Pub.: 29 Jan '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Effects of modifiable prehospital factors on survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in rural versus urban areas

Abstract: The modifiable prehospital system factors, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), emergency medical services (EMS), response time, and EMS physician attendance, may affect short- and long-term survival for both rural and urban out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. We studied how such factors influenced OHCA survival in a mixed urban/rural region with a high survival rate after OHCA.We analyzed the association between modifiable prehospital factors and survival to different stages of care in 1138 medical OHCA patients from an Utstein template-based cardiac arrest registry, using Kaplan-Meier type survival curves, univariable and multivariable logistic regression and mortality hazard plots.We found a significantly higher probability for survival to hospital admission (OR: 1.84, 95% CI 1.43–2.36, p < 0.001), to hospital discharge (OR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.08–2.11, p = 0.017), and at 1 year (OR: 1.58, 95% CI 1.11–2.26, p = 0.012) in the urban group versus the rural group. In patients receiving bystander CPR before EMS arrival, the odds of survival to hospital discharge increased more than threefold (OR: 3.05, 95% CI 2.00–4.65, p < 0.001). However, bystander CPR was associated with increased patient survival to discharge only in urban areas (survival probability 0.26 with CPR vs. 0.08 without CPR, p < 0.001). EMS response time ≥ 10 min was associated with decreased survival (OR: 0.61, 95% CI 0.45–0.83, p = 0.002), however, only in urban areas (survival probability 0.15 ≥ 10 min vs. 0.25 < 10 min, p < 0.001). In patients with prehospital EMS physician attendance, no significant differences were found in survival to hospital discharge (OR: 1.37, 95% CI 0.87–2.16, p = 0.17). In rural areas, patients with EMS physician attendance had an overall better survival to hospital discharge (survival probability 0.17 with EMS physician vs. 0.05 without EMS physician, p = 0.019). Adjusted for modifiable factors, the survival differences remained.Overall, OHCA survival was higher in urban compared to rural areas, and the effect of bystander CPR, EMS response time and EMS physician attendance on survival differ between urban and rural areas. The effect of modifiable factors on survival was highest in the prehospital stage of care. In patients surviving to hospital admission, there was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality or in 1 year mortality between OHCA in rural versus urban areas.

Pub.: 18 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Prehospital Blood Product Administration Opportunities in Ground Transport ALS EMS - A Descriptive Study.

Abstract: IntroductionHemorrhage remains the major cause of preventable death after trauma. Recent data suggest that earlier blood product administration may improve outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether opportunities exist for blood product transfusion by ground Emergency Medical Services (EMS). This was a single EMS agency retrospective study of ground and helicopter responses from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 for adult trauma patients transported from the scene of injury who met predetermined hemodynamic (HD) parameters for potential transfusion (heart rate [HR]≥120 and/or systolic blood pressure [SBP]≤90). A total of 7,900 scene trauma ground transports occurred during the study period. Of 420 patients meeting HD criteria for transfusion, 53 (12.6%) had a significant mechanism of injury (MOI). Outcome data were available for 51 patients; 17 received blood products during their emergency department (ED) resuscitation. The percentage of patients receiving blood products based upon HD criteria ranged from 1.0% (HR) to 5.9% (SBP) to 38.1% (HR+SBP). In all, 74 Helicopter EMS (HEMS) transports met HD criteria for blood transfusion, of which, 28 patients received prehospital blood transfusion. Statistically significant total patient care time differences were noted for both the HR and the SBP cohorts, with HEMS having longer time intervals; no statistically significant difference in mean total patient care time was noted in the HR+SBP cohort. In this study population, HD parameters alone did not predict need for ED blood product administration. Despite longer transport times, only one-third of HEMS patients meeting HD criteria for blood administration received prehospital transfusion. While one-third of ground Advanced Life Support (ALS) transport patients manifesting HD compromise received blood products in the ED, this represented 0.2% of total trauma transports over the study period. Given complex logistical issues involved in prehospital blood product administration, opportunities for ground administration appear limited within the described system. MixFM, ZielinskiMD, MyersLA, BernsKS, LukeA, StubbsJR, ZietlowSP, JenkinsDH, SztajnkrycerMD. Prehospital blood product administration opportunities in ground transport ALS EMS - a descriptive study.

Pub.: 20 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Investigating the Extent Realistic Moulage Impacts on Immersion and Performance Among Undergraduate Paramedicine Students in a Simulation-based Trauma Scenario: A Pilot Study.

Abstract: Many healthcare education commentators suggest that moulage can be used in simulation to enhance scenario realism. However, few studies investigate to what extent using moulage in simulation impacts learners. We undertook a mixed-methods pilot study investigating how moulage influences student immersion and performance in simulation. Fifty undergraduate paramedicine students were randomized into two groups completing a trauma-based scenario with or without patient moulage. Task immersion was determined via a self-report questionnaire (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index), eye-tracking, and postsimulation interviews. Performance was measured via independent observation of video by two paramedic clinical educators and time-to-action-when students first applied pressure to the primary wound. Eye-tracking suggested that students attended to the thigh wound more often with the inclusion of moulage than without. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index data suggested that the inclusion of moulage heightened students' feeling of being rushed throughout the scenario. This elicited an expedited performance of tasks with moulage present compared with not. Students experienced greater immersion with the inclusion of moulage. However, including moulage enhanced scenario difficulty to the extent that overall clinical performance was negatively affected. However, no differences were found when more heavily weighting items felt to contribute most to the survivability of the patient. Including moulage engendered immersion and a greater sense of urgency and did not sacrifice performance of key life-saving interventions. As a result of undertaking this pilot project, we suggest that a large-scale randomized controlled trial is feasible and should be undertaken before implementing change to curricula.

Pub.: 20 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Burden of Emergency Medical Services Usage by Dialysis Patients.

Abstract: Patients receiving chronic dialysis often require emergent and inpatient care; however, only a minimal amount is known about their out-of-hospital/inter-hospital use of Emergency Medical Services (EMS). The purpose of this study was to describe the utilization of EMS in a cohort of dialysis patients. We analyzed a cohort of adult (≥18 years) chronic dialysis patients within the Nova Scotia Health Authority Central Zone Renal Program who initiated chronic dialysis between January 1, 2009 and June 30, 2013 (last follow up July 1, 2015). Dialysis patient data was linked to regional EMS data. Requests for EMS, including encounter type, day of the week, and patient characteristics were described. The cohort consisted of 468 patients of whom 79% (N = 361) had an EMS encounter. There were a total of 8,774 EMS encounters for the entire cohort. Patients who had an EMS encounter tended to be older (64 ± 14 years), compared to those without an encounter (55 ± 16 years, P < 0.001) and also had a higher burden of comorbidity. Transfers (including those between facilities) accounted for 89% of all encounters (N = 7,826), followed by emergency department (ED) transports (N = 749, 9%). Overall, 79% of all non-transfers underwent transport to the ED. For patients receiving thrice weekly in-center hemodialysis, the highest EMS utilization for ED transport occurred on the first hemodialysis day after the long dialysis break (22%, P < 0.01). The lowest proportion of ED transports occurred on the day after hemodialysis day 3. Utilization of EMS services by dialysis patients is considerable, particularly for transfers. This highlights a potential area to be targeted for reducing resource utilization. Calls requiring transport to the ED occurred most often on Mondays and Tuesdays, the day after the long-dialysis break, and may represent a time of heightened risk for in-center hemodialysis patients.

Pub.: 20 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Atmosphere, Vol. 9, Pages 114: Short-Term Changes in Weather and Space Weather Conditions and Emergency Ambulance Calls for Elevated Arterial Blood Pressure

Abstract: Circadian rhythm influences the physiology of the cardiovascular system, inducing diurnal variation of blood pressure. We investigated the association between daily emergency ambulance calls (EACs) for elevated arterial blood pressure during the time intervals of 8:00–13:59, 14:00–21:59, and 22:00–7:59 and weekly fluctuations of air temperature (T), barometric pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, geomagnetic activity (GMA), and high-speed solar wind (HSSW). We used the Poisson regression to explore the association between the risk of EACs and weather variables, adjusting for seasonality and exposure to CO, PM10, and ozone. An increase of 10 °C when T &gt; 1 °C on the day of the call was associated with a decrease in the risk of EACs during the time periods of 14:00–21:59 (RR (rate ratio) = 0.78; p &lt; 0.001) and 22:00–7:59 (RR = 0.88; p = 0.35). During the time period of 8:00–13:59, the risk of EACs was positively associated with T above 1 °C with a lag of 5–7 days (RR = 1.18; p = 0.03). An elevated risk was associated during 8:00–13:59 with active-stormy GMA (RR = 1.22; p = 0.003); during 14:00–21:59 with very low GMA (RR = 1.07; p = 0.008) and HSSW (RR = 1.17; p = 0.014); and during 22:00–7:59 with HSSW occurring after active-stormy days (RR = 1.32; p = 0.019). The associations of environmental variables with the exacerbation of essential hypertension may be analyzed depending on the time of the event.

Pub.: 20 Mar '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Paramedics as a New Resource for Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence.

Abstract: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a major impact on the health and well-being of women. The need for a coordinated response from health care professions encountering IPV patients is well established, and guidelines for individual health care professions are needed. Paramedics are believed to frequently encounter IPV patients, and this study aims to create a guideline to direct their response based on expert opinion. A clinical guideline for paramedics was created using current evidence and recommendations from health agencies. A panel of family violence researchers and service delivery experts such as physicians, family violence support agencies, and police commented on the guideline via a Policy Delphi Method to obtain consensus agreement. A total of 42 experts provided feedback over three rounds resulting in 100% consensus. Results include clinical indicators to recognize IPV patients in the prehospital environment, a description of how paramedics should discuss IPV with patients, recommended referral agencies and pathways, and appropriate documentation of case findings. This study has created the first comprehensive, consensus-based guideline for paramedics to recognize and refer IPV patients to care and support. The guideline could potentially be modified for use by ambulance services worldwide and can be used as the basis for building the capacity of paramedics to respond to IPV, which may lead to increased referrals to care and support.

Pub.: 21 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Prehospital emergency care nurses' strategies while caring for patients with limited Swedish - English proficiency.

Abstract: To explore the strategies of nurses working in the ambulance service while caring for patients with limited Swedish-English proficiency. Communication difficulties due to lack of mutual language is a challenge in health care systems around the world. Little is known about nurses' strategies while caring for patients with whom they do not share a mutual language in an unstructured, unplanned prehospital emergency environment, the ambulance service. A qualitative study design based on interviews was used and a purposeful sample and snowball technique was used to identify nurses with prehospital emergency experience of caring for patients with limited Swedish-English proficiency. Eleven nurses were interviewed, and the main strategy they used was adapting to the patients' need and the caring situation. The nurses used their own body, and tone of voice for creating a sense of trust and security. The nurses also used structured assessment in accordance with medical guidelines. Translation devices and relatives/bystanders were used as interpreters when possible. Another strategy was to transport the patient directly to the emergency department since they had not found a secure way of assessing and caring for the patients in the ambulance. The nurses used a palette of strategies while assessing and caring for patients when there was no mutual language between the caregiver and care seeker. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Pub.: 22 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Traumatic cardiac arrest in Sweden 1990-2016 - a population-based national cohort study

Abstract: Trauma is a main cause of death among young adults worldwide. Patients experiencing a traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) certainly have a poor prognosis but population-based studies are sparse. Primarily to describe characteristics and 30-day survival following a TCA as compared with a medical out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (medical CA).A cohort study based on data from the nationwide, prospective population-based Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR), a medical cardiac arrest registry, between 1990 and 2016. The definition of a TCA in the SRCR is a patient who is unresponsive with apnoea where cardiopulmonary resuscitation and/or defibrillation have been initiated and in whom the Emergency Medical Services (EMS, mainly a nurse-based system) reported trauma as the aetiology. Outcome was overall 30-day survival. Descriptive statistics as well as multivariable logistic regression models were used.In all, between 1990 and 2016, 1774 (2.4%) cases had a TCA and 72,547 had a medical CA. Overall 30-day survival gradually increased over the years, and was 3.7% for TCAs compared to 8.2% following a medical CA (p < 0.01). Among TCAs, factors associated with a higher 30-day survival were bystander witnessed and having a shockable initial rhythm (adjusted OR 2.67, 95% C.I. 1.15–6.22 and OR 8.94 95% C.I. 4.27-18.69, respectively).Association in registry-based studies do not imply causality but TCA had short time intervals in the chain of survival as well as high rates of bystander-CPR.In a medical CA registry like ours, prevalence of TCAs is low and survival is poor. Registries like ours might not capture the true incidence. However, many individuals do survive and resuscitation in TCAs should not be seen futile.

Pub.: 23 Apr '18, Pinned: 24 Apr '18

Evaluation of a Novel Wireless Transmission System for Trauma Ultrasound Examinations From Moving Ambulances.

Abstract: To determine if physicians trained in ultrasound interpretation perceive a difference in image quality and usefulness between Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography ultrasound examinations performed at bedside in a hospital vs. by emergency medical technicians minimally trained in medical ultrasound on a moving ambulance and transmitted to the hospital via a novel wireless system. In particular, we sought to demonstrate that useful images could be obtained from patients in less than optimal imaging conditions; that is, while they were in transport. Emergency medical technicians performed the examinations during transport of blunt trauma patients. Upon patient arrival at the hospital, a bedside Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography examination was performed by a physician. Both examinations were recorded and later reviewed by physicians trained in ultrasound interpretation. Data were collected on 20 blunt trauma patients over a period of 13 mo. Twenty ultrasound-trained physicians blindly compared transmitted vs. bedside images using 11 Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction scales. Four paired samples t-tests were conducted to assess mean differences between ratings for ambulatory and base images. Although there is a slight tendency for the average rating across all subjects and raters to be slightly higher in the base than in the ambulatory condition, none of these differences are statistically significant. These results suggest that the quality of the ambulatory images was viewed as essentially as good as the quality of the base images.

Pub.: 11 Apr '18, Pinned: 13 Apr '18

Utilizing Propensity Score Analyses in Prehospital Blood Product Transfusion Studies: Lessons Learned and Moving Toward Best Practice.

Abstract: Recently, observational studies analyzing prehospital blood product transfusions (PHT) for trauma have become more widespread in both military and civilian communities. Due to these studies' non-random treatment assignment, propensity score (PS) methodologies are often used to determine an intervention's effectiveness. However, there are no guidelines on how to appropriately conduct PS analyses in prehospital studies. Such analyses are complicated when treatments are given in emergent settings as the ability to administer treatment early, often before hospital admission, can interfere with assumptions of PS modeling. This study conducts a systematic review of literature from military and civilian populations to assess current practice of PS methodology in PHT analyses. The decision-making process from the multicenter Prehospital Resuscitation on Helicopter Study (PROHS) is discussed and used as a motivating example. Results show that researchers often omit or incorrectly assess variable balance between treatment groups and include inappropriate variables in the propensity model. When used correctly, PS methodology is an effective statistical technique to show that aggressive en route resuscitation strategies, including PHT, can reduce mortality in individuals with severe trauma. This review provides guidelines for best practices in study design and analyses that will advance trauma care.

Pub.: 11 Apr '18, Pinned: 13 Apr '18

Advanced airway management in hoist and longline operations in mountain HEMS – considerations in austere environments: a narrative review This review is endorsed by the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM)

Abstract: Providing sufficient oxygenation and ventilation is of paramount importance for the survival of emergency patients. Therefore, advanced airway management is one of the core tasks for every rescue team. Endotracheal intubation is the gold standard to secure the airway in the prehospital setting. This review aims to highlight special considerations for advanced airway management preceding human external cargo (HEC) evacuations.We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed in August 2017 for articles on airway management and ventilation in patients before hoist or longline operation in HEMS. Relevant reference lists were hand-searched.Three articles with regard to advanced airway management and five articles concerning the epidemiology of advanced airway management in hoist or longline rescue missions were included. We found one case report regarding ventilation during hoist operations.The exact incidence of advanced airway management before evacuation of a patient by HEC is unknown but seems to be very low (< 5%). There are several hazards which can impede mechanical ventilation of patients during HEC extractions: loss of equipment, hyperventilation, inability to ventilate and consequent hypoxia, as well as inadequacy of monitoring.Advanced airway management prior to HEC operation is rarely performed. If intubation before helicopter hoist operations (HHO) and human cargo sling (HCS) extraction is considered by the rescue team, a risk/benefit analysis should be performed and a clear standard operating procedure (SOP) should be defined. Continuous and rigorous training including the whole crew is required. An international registry on airway management during HEC extraction would be desirable.

Pub.: 03 Apr '18, Pinned: 10 Apr '18

Analysis of Prehospital Scene Times and Interventions on Mortality Outcomes in a National Cohort of Penetrating and Blunt Trauma Patients.

Abstract: Recent studies have suggested improved outcomes in victims of penetrating trauma managed with shorter prehospital times and limited interventions. The purpose of the current study was to perform an outcome analysis of patients transported following penetrating and blunt traumatic injuries. We performed a descriptive retrospective analysis of the 2014 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) public release research data set for patients presenting after acute traumatic injury. A total of 2,018,141 patient encounters met criteria, of which 3.9% were penetrating trauma. Prehospital cardiac arrest occurred in 0.5% blunt and 4.2% penetrating trauma patients. Emergency department (ED) mortality was higher in penetrating than blunt trauma patients (4.1% vs. 0.8%). Scene times were 18.1 ± 36.5 minutes for blunt and 16.0 ± 45.3 minutes for penetrating trauma. Mean scene time for blunt trauma patients who died in the ED was 24.9 ± 58.0 minutes compared with 18.8 ± 38.5 minutes for those admitted; for penetrating trauma, scene times were 17.9 ± 23.5 and 13.4 ± 11.6 minutes, respectively. Mean number of procedures performed for blunt trauma patients who died in the ED was 6.5 ± 4.3 compared with 3.1 ± 2.3 for those who survived until admission; for penetrating trauma, the numbers of procedures performed were 5.7 ± 3.4 and 2.6 ± 2.0, respectively. Although less frequent than blunt trauma, penetrating trauma is associated with significantly higher prehospital and ED mortality. Increased scene time and number of procedures was associated with greater mortality for both blunt and penetrating trauma. Further study is required to better understand any causal relationships between prehospital times and interventions and patient outcomes.

Pub.: 05 Apr '18, Pinned: 10 Apr '18

Prehospital triage of patients diagnosed with perforated peptic ulcer or peptic ulcer bleeding: an observational study of patients calling 1-1-2

Abstract: Triage systems are used in emergency medical services to systematically prioritize prehospital resources according to individual patient conditions. Previous studies have shown cases of preventable deaths in emergency medical services even when triage systems are used, indicating a potential undertriage among some conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the triage level among patients diagnosed with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) or peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB).In a three-year period in Central Denmark Region, all patients hospitalized within 24 h after a 1-1-2 emergency call and who subsequently received either a PPU or a PUB (hereinafter combined and referred to as PPU/PUB) or a First Hour Quintet (FHQ: respiratory failure, stroke, trauma, cardiac chest pain, and cardiac arrest) diagnosis were investigated. A modified Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk of receiving the highest and lowest prehospital response level. Also, a linear regression analysis was used to estimate the relative risk of 30-day mortality.Of 8658 evaluated patients, 263 were diagnosed with PPU/PUB. After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, patients diagnosed with PPU/PUB were less likely to receive ambulance transportation compared to patients diagnosed with stroke, RR = 1.41 (CI: 1.28–1.56); trauma, RR = 1.28 (CI: 1.15–1.42); cardiac chest pain, RR = 1.47 (CI: 1.33–1.62); and cardiac arrest, RR = 1.44 (CI: 1.31–1.42). Among patients diagnosed with PPU/PUB, 6.5% (CI: 3.3–9.7) did not receive ambulance transportation. The proportion of patients not receiving ambulance transportation was higher among patients diagnosed with PPU/PUB compared to patients diagnosed with an FHQ diagnosis. The 30-day mortality rate among patients diagnosed with PPU/PUB was 7.8% (CI: 4.2–11.1). This was lower than the 30-day mortality rate among patients diagnosed with respiratory failure (P = 0.010), stroke (P = 0.001), and cardiac arrest (P < 0.001), but comparable to the 30-day mortality among patients diagnosed with cardiac chest pain (P = 0.080) and trauma (P = 0.281).Among patients calling 1-1-2, fewer patients diagnosed with PPU/PUB received ambulance transportation than patients diagnosed with FHQ diagnoses, despite a high mortality among patients diagnosed with PPU/PUB.

Pub.: 05 Apr '18, Pinned: 10 Apr '18

#FOAMems: Engaging paramedics with free, online open-access education.

Abstract: Twitteruse among paramedics and other prehospital care clinicians is on the rise and is increasingly being used as a platform for continuing education and international collaboration. In 2014, the hashtag #FOAMems was registered. It is used for the sharing of emergency medical services, paramedicine, and prehospital care-related content. It is a component of the 'free open-access meducation' (FOAM) movement. The aim of this study was to characterize and evaluate the content of #FOAMems tweets since registration. An analytical report for #FOAMems was generated on symplur.com from February 4, 2014, to April 30, 2017. A transcript of all #FOAMems tweets for a randomly selected 1 month period (October 2015) was generated, and quantitative content analysis was performed by two reviewers. Tweets were categorized according to source (original tweet/retweet) and whether referenced. The top 92 tweeters were analyzed for professional identity. During the study period, there were over 99,000 tweets containing #FOAMems, by over 9,200 participants. These resulted in almost 144 million impressions. Of the top 92 tweeters, 50 were paramedics (54%). Tweets were mainly related to cardiac (23%), leadership (19%), and trauma (14%). The 1-month period resulted in 649 original tweets, with 2110 retweets; 1070 of these were referenced. Paramedics are engaging with both clinical and nonclinical content on Twitterusing #FOAMems. Social media resources are widely shared, which is in line with the FOAM movement's philosophy. However, opportunities exist for paramedics to share further diverse resources supported by referenced material.

Pub.: 06 Apr '18, Pinned: 10 Apr '18

Clinician tasking in ambulance control improves the identification of major trauma patients and pre-hospital critical care team tasking.

Abstract: Trauma remains the fourth leading cause of death in western countries and is the leading cause of death in the first four decades of life. NICE guidance in 2016 advocated the attendance of pre-hospital critical care trauma team (PHCCT) in the pre-hospital stage of the care of patients with major trauma. Previous publications support dispatch by clinicians who are also actively involved in the delivery of the PHCCT service; however there is a lack of objective outcome measures across the current reviewed evidence base. In this study, we aimed to assess the accuracy of PHCCT clinician led dispatch, when measured by Injury Severity Score (ISS). A retrospective cohort study over a 2 year period pre and post implementation of a PHCCT clinician led dispatch of PHCCT for potential major trauma patients, using national ambulance data combined with national trauma registry data. A total of 99,702 trauma related calls were made to SAS including 495 major trauma patients with an ISS >15, and a total of 454 dispatches of a PHCCT. Following the introduction of a PHCCT clinician staffed trauma desk, the sensitivity for major trauma was increased from 11.3% to 25.9%. The difference in sensitivity between the pre and post trauma desk group was significant at 14.6% (95% CI 7.4%-21.4%, p < .001). The results from the study support the results from other studies recommending that a PHCCT clinician should be located in ambulance control to identify major trauma patients as early as possible and co-ordinate the response. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Pub.: 07 Apr '18, Pinned: 10 Apr '18