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A seismic geomorphology study of the fluvial and lacustrine-delta facies of the Cretaceous Quantou-Nenjiang Formations in Songliao Basin, China

Research paper by Meng Qi'an, Zhang Shun, Sun Guoxin, Fu Xiuli, Wang Chao, Shang Yao

Indexed on: 14 Mar '16Published on: 26 Jan '16Published in: Marine and Petroleum Geology



Abstract

With the aid of seismic geomorphology method, depositional systems such as fluvial-delta and turbidity current of the Cretaceous Quantou-Nenjiang Formations in Sangliao Basin were studied in detail as well as the morphology, dimension, depositional structures and boundaries of these sedimentary bodies. A geological model of a point bar in a fluvial system and the method to identify paleocurrent direction were proposed. The delta of Yaojia Formation with a gentle slope less than 1.4‰ in trangressive system tract (TST) was controlled by lake waves. Subaqueous distributary channels were widely developed in large-scale delta front with a width more than 16 km. Fluvial-dominated deltas with leaf and bird's foot shapes were widespread in highstand system tract (HST) of Qinshankou and Nengjiang Formation with moderately high slope gradients of 4‰ and 6.7‰.The width of the leaf-like and bird's foot delta front ranges from 1 km to 4 km and 3 km–5 km respectively. The mouth bar were well preserved due to the poorly developed widely distributed subaqueous distributary channels and the delta plains having widths of 9 km–15 km, 16 km-25 km respectively. Many turbidity current systems were recognized in the TST of the first member of Nengjiang Formation and the distribution area is about 10,000 km2. Fourteen sublacustrine fans with different dimension were formed by ten fluvial-delta systems extending 30 km–70 km toward the lake from the west and south. With the application of seismic geomorphology, the analysis of fluvial system, delta system and turbidity current system could switch from approximation to quantitative analysis. Sedimentary model proposed for point bars and the quantitative analysis of delta system could provide new technical support for exploration and drilling plan. The research on turbidity current systems will also be beneficial for new exploration targets.

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